a. A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction.
b. In a TQM effort, all members of an organisation participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.
c. Total Quality Management TQM, also known as total productive maintenance, describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction.
d. In a TQM effort, all members of an organisation participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.
e. The 8 Primary Elements of TQM: Total quality management can be summarised as a management system for a customer-focused organisation that involves all employees in continual improvement. It uses strategy, data, and effective communications to integrate the quality discipline into the culture and activities of the organisation. Many of these concepts are present in modern Quality Management Systems, the successor to TQM. Here are the 8 principles of total quality management:
The customer ultimately determines the level of quality. No matter what an organisation does to foster quality improvement—training employees, integrating quality into the design process, upgrading computers or software, or buying new measuring tools—the customer determines whether the efforts were worthwhile.
2. Total employee involvement
All employees participate in working toward common goals. Total employee commitment can only be obtained after fear has been driven from the workplace, when empowerment has occurred, and management has provided the proper environment. High-performance work systems integrate continuous improvement efforts with normal business operations. Self-managed work teams are one form of empowerment.
A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. A process is a series of steps that take inputs from suppliers (internal or external) and transforms them into outputs that are delivered to customers (again, either internal or external). The steps required to carry out the process are defined, and performance measures are continuously monitored in order to detect unexpected variation.
4. Integrated system
Although an organisation may consist of many different functional specialities often organised into vertically structured departments, it is the horizontal processes interconnecting these functions that are the focus of TQM.
Micro-processes add up to larger processes, and all processes aggregate into the business processes required for defining and implementing strategy. Everyone must understand the vision, mission, and guiding principles as well as the quality policies, objectives, and critical processes of the organisation. Business performance must be monitored and communicated continuously.
An integrated business system may be modelled after the Baldrige National Quality Program criteria and/or incorporate the ISO 9000 standards. Every organisation has a unique work culture, and it is virtually impossible to achieve excellence in its products and services unless a good quality culture has been fostered. Thus, an integrated system connects business improvement elements in an attempt to continually improve and exceed the expectations of customers, employees, and other stakeholders.
5. Strategic and systematic approach
A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and systematic approach to achieving an organisation's vision, mission, and goals. This process, called strategic planning or strategic management, includes the formulation of a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component.
6. Continual improvement
A major thrust of TQM is continual process improvement. Continual improvement drives an organisation to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to become more competitive and more effective at meeting stakeholder expectations.
7. Fact-based decision making
In order to know how well an organisation is performing, data on performance measures are necessary. TQM requires that an organisation continually collect and analyse data in order to improve decision making accuracy, achieve consensus, and allow prediction based on past history.
During times of organisational change, as well as part of day-to-day operation, effective communications plays a large part in maintaining morale and in motivating employees at all levels. Communications involve strategies, method, and timeliness.
Shared by: MKR