BIJAN

BIJAN
MKR with YAB Dato' Sri Najib

Wednesday, October 4, 2017

APAKAH MAKSUD INTEGRITI DAN PENCEGAHAN RASUAH?

A - MAKSUD INTEGRITI

1) Maksud INTEGRITI yang berasal dari istilah bahasa Inggeris yang membawa erti keutuhan dari semua segi yang baik.

2) Dalam bahasa Melayu, ia biasanya menjurus kearah perwatakan seseorang.

3) Maksud integriti mengikut Kamus Dwibahasa DBP, 1985, ialah kejujuran dan ketulusan; kesempurnaan; keutuhan.

5) Integriti adalah sifat jati diri yang merangkumi juga keikhlasan, keterbukaan, ketelusan, amanah, benar, berpegang kepada prinsip, tidak mudah dipengaruhi, boleh dipercayai, boleh pegang cakapnya, dan lain-lain.

6) Rujukan: MAKSUD INTEGRITI

[https://ms.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Integriti]; juga rujuk foto.

7) Jelas dinyatakan Integriti adalah bermaksud lebih menjurus kepada BUDAYA atau pun AMALAN.

B - TUJUAN PENUBUHAN JABATAN INTEGRITI DAN TADBIR URUS NEGARA (JITN)

1) Tujuan utama penubuhan Jabatan Integriti dan Tadbir Urus Negara (#JITN) adalah sebagai langkah MENAIKTARAF Bahagian Integriti dan Tadbir Urus (BITU) sedia ada.

2) Ia diumumkan dalam siri Dialog #TN50: Melangkah ke Hadapan Meneruskan Agenda Integriti Negara, bersama Institut Integriti Malaysia (INTEGRITI).

3) Penubuhan jabatan itu akan membantu kerajaan dalam usaha membina dan mencapai objektif aspirasi Transformasi Nasional (#TN50), berkaitan budaya berintegriti tinggi menjelang tahun 2050.

4) Rujukan: TUBUH JABATAN INTEGRITI DAN TADBIR URUS NEGARA

[https://www.bharian.com.my/berita/nasional/2017/09/330176/tubuh-jabatan-integriti-dan-tadbir-urus-negara]

5) Jelas objektif Jabatan Integriti dan Tadbir Urus Negara adalah bertujuan untuk MENAIKTARAF (diulangi MENAIKTARAF) Bahagian Integriti dan Tadbir Urus (BITU) sedia ada dalam meluaskan skop dan gerak kerja mendidik masyarakat, jabatan kerajaan juga agensi-agensi terlibat untuk menjadikan integriti sebagai budaya dan amalan dalam masyarakat menjelang 2050.

6) Ianya juga selaras dengan penubuhan INSTITUT INTEGRITI MALAYSIA (IIM).

C - MENGENALI SURUHANJAYA PENCEGAHAN RASUAH MALAYSIA (SPRM).

1) Fungsinya diperuntukkan di bawah Seksyen 7 Akta SPRM 2009 iaitu:

1.1: Menerima dan menimbangkan apa-apa aduan tentang pelakuan kesalahan di bawah Akta SPRM 2009 dan menyiasat mana-mana aduan itu sebagaimana yang difikirkan praktik oleh Ketua Pesuruhjaya atau pegawai-pegawai itu;

1.2: Mengesan dan menyiasat:

a: Apa-apa kesalahan yang disyaki di bawah Akta SPRM 2009;

b: Apa-apa percubaan yang disyaki untuk melakukan apa-apa kesalahan dibawah Akta SPRM 2009; dan

c: Apa-apa komplot yang disyaki untuk melakukan apa-apa kesalahan di bawah Akta 2009;

1.3: Meneliti amalan, sistem dan tatacara badan-badan awam untuk memudahkan penemuan kesalahan di bawah Akta SPRM 2009 dan untuk menghasilkan kajian semula amalan, sistem atau tatacara itu yang pada pendapat Ketua Pesuruhjaya mungkin membawa kepada rasuah;

1.4: Mengarahkan, menasihati dan membantu mana-mana orang, atas permintaan orang itu, tentang cara-cara bagaimana rasuah dapat dihapuskan oleh orang itu;

1.5: Menasihati ketua badan-badan awam tentang apa-apa perubahan dalam amalan, sistem atau tatacara yang sesuai dengan penunaian berkesan kewajipan-kewajipan badan-badan awam itu sebagaimana yang difikirkan perlu oleh Ketua Pesuruhjaya untuk mengurangkan kemungkinan berlakunya rasuah;

1.6: Mendidik orang ramai untuk menentang rasuah; dan

1.7: Mendapatkan dan memelihara sokongan orang ramai dalam memerangi rasuah.

2) Rujukan: FUNGSI SURUHANJAYA PENCEGAHAN RASUAH MALAYSIA

[http://www.sprm.gov.my/index.php/korporat/mengenai-sprm/maklumat-organisasi/fungsi]

3) SPRM adalah lebih menjurus kepada penguatkuasaan.

4) Dalam apa jua gerak kerja SPRM, ianya adalah lebih kepada mendidik dan mengajar masyarakat mengenali apa itu rasuah.

D - TUJUAN PENUBUHAN INSTITUT INTEGRITI MALAYSIA (IIM)

1) Penubuhan Institut Etika Awam serta melaksanakan Pelan Kewibawaan Nasional ke arah menggalakkan urus tadbir yang berkesan, akauntabiliti serta kecekapan sektor awam dan swasta.

2) Pak Lah mengumumkan demikian pada sidang akhbar selepas mempengerusikan mesyuarat kabinet pertama setelah memegang jawatan Perdana Menteri di Putrajaya pada 31 Oktober 2003.

3) Sehubungan itu, pada 23 April 2004, Pak Lah telah merasmikan penubuhan institusi etika yang dikenali sebagai Institut Integriti Malaysia (IIM) dan turut melancarkan majlis pelancaran Pelan Integriti Nasional (PIN).

4) IIM ditubuhkan sebagai agensi penyelaras dan pemantau pelaksanaan PIN dengan objektif utama IIM ialah untuk membangunkan sebuah negara Malaysia yang berintegriti, berdaya tahan dan menghayati nilai-nilai murni sejagat.

5) Kerajaan juga telah mengisytiharkan tarikh 5 November 2005, sebagai ‘Hari Integriti Nasional’ dalam usaha membudayakan integriti, memupuk nilai-nilai murni sejagat serta memperteguhkan tadbir urus di kalangan masyarakat.

6) Website: INSTITUT INTEGRITI MALAYSIA (http://integriti.my) 2005

7) Rujukan: [http://www2.arkib.gov.my/hids/print.php?type=A&item_id=5278]; juga rujuk foto.

E) PENUBUHAN SURUHANJAYA INTEGRITI AGENSI PENGUATKUASAAN (EAIC)

1) Suruhanjaya Integriti Agensi Penguatkuasaan adalah sebuah Badan Berkanun Persekutuan yang ditubuhkan melalui Akta Parlimen, di bawah Seksyen 3 Akta Suruhanjaya Integriti Agensi Penguatkuasaan 2009 [Akta 700] yang diwartakan pada 3 September 2009.

2) Akta 700 kemudian dikuatkuasakan pada 1 April 2011.

3) Akta ini menggantikan Rang Undang-Undang Suruhanjaya Bebas Aduan dan Salah Laku Polis.

4) Penubuhan Suruhanjaya ini adalah selaras dengan sasaran Kerajaan untuk menyemai dan meningkatkan integriti di kalangan pegawai penguat kuasa dan agensi penguatkuasaan justeru memperkukuhkan keyakinan orang ramai terhadap mereka.

5) Sejak Akta ini dikuatkuasakan, Suruhanjaya ini telah mula melaksanakan fungsi-fungsi seperti yang diperuntukkan di dalam seksyen 4 Akta 700.

6) Fungsi utama Suruhanjaya ini adalah menerima aduan salah laku daripada orang ramai terhadap pegawai penguat kuasa atau agensi penguatkuasaan secara amnya dan menyiasat serta mengadakan pendengaran berhubung dengan aduan yang diterima.

7) Oleh itu, aktiviti-aktiviti penguatkuasaan akan sentiasa dipantau dan sekiranya 81 salah laku, tindakan susulan yang sewajarnya akan disyorkan.

8) Rujukan: SURUHANJAYA INTEGRITI AGENSI PENGUATKUASAAN

[http://www.eaic.gov.my/]

9) Yang mana, anggota SPRM sekiranya ada melakukan salahlaku berkaitan INTEGRITI dalam menjalankan tugas penguatkasaan boleh diambil tindakan oleh EAIC.

10) Adakah SPRM mampu untuk mengendali dua perkara berbeza, iaitu membudayakan INTEGRITI dan dalam waktu yang sama melaksana PENCEGAHAN rasuah?

11) Kes-kes rasuah sedia ada SPRM pun masih ada yang tertangguh tindakannya.

12) Perhatikan sahaja kes Rasuah Lim Guan Eng, apa tindakan SPRM terhadap beliau berkaitan isu Kilang Haram di Pulau Pinang?

13) Ternyata dari beberapa rujukan di atas, diyakini bahawa TIADA PERTINDIHAN FUNGSI (TUGAS) DALAM Jabatan Integriti dan Tadbir Urus Negara (#JITN) dan Suruhanjaya Pencegahan Rasuah Malaysia (#SPRM).

14) Tidak mungkin SPRM mahu menegur pekerja yang datang lewat masuk pejabat kerana ianya termasuk dalam INTEGRITI 'Amanah & Jati Diri dalam Pekerjaan'.

15) PM Najib Razak sudah 50 langkah di hadapan memikirkan soal ini agar tidak membebankan SPRM, mengapa pula ianya dijadikan isu?

Nota: Pegawai SPRM pun ada juga yang TIDAK BERINTEGRITI jika terlibat dengan kes PERAS UGUT anggota PDRM kebelakangan ini.

Dedikasi: NAK

MKR

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

A PROMISING FUTURE FOR MALAYSIA

Prime Minister YAB Dato’ Sri Najib Razak has just concluded a historic visit to the White House at the invitation of United States President Donald Trump.

This was our prime minster’s first visit to the office of the most powerful man in the world since assuming the premiership eight years ago. It is not only a great honour for him, but also for Malaysia.

Media coverage — both foreign and local — of the working trip has been intense. Some were positive, others less so. There were even calls by certain quarters for the trip to be cancelled. Others raised questions about the matters that our prime minister discussed with the president.

For instance: should a developing country like Malaysia be trying to strengthen the US economy? Why is our EPF (Employees Provident Fund) investing in US infrastructure when some of our own projects need funding? Why is Malaysia Airlines Bhd (MAS) making a decision to buy new planes when its bottom line is still not in the black?

While some of the issues raised may be valid, a great many are frivolous and others utterly baseless. This is, unfortunately, a sad reflection of how partisan our politics have become, as well as the lack of maturity of some leaders despite their advanced years.

I was part of the prime minister’s delegation to Washington DC and was involved in the discussions during the visit, as I have been on similar occasions with other world leaders.

It has been made clear that our prime minister was on a working visit. I can assure everyone that the bilateral discussion with President Trump was very cordial, open and transparent. Trump is a friend of our prime minister. The mutual respect between them was evident.

Both men were in complete control and confident. Their body language was warm. There was no snubbing, chiding or criticism as some would have wished.

Our prime minister’s performance during the bilateral meeting did us proud. He articulated our interests extremely well. Even the issue of our huge trade surplus with the US of RM25 billion was discussed in a very proper manner.

This is crucial as the new administration’s fixation on trade deficits is well known. Of the 13 countries that have been highlighted, Malaysia is No. 7, thanks to our huge trade surplus with the US (China is first).

Despite this, President Trump was very polite in asking Malaysia to buy more things from the US. Incidentally, the fact that Malay-
sia has a huge surplus with the US shows that we are doing well in trade. We are a strong economy and not a failed state as some would claim.

In terms of investments, our American friends were astonished to know that Malaysia has investments amounting to more than US$16 billion (RM67 billion) in equities, high tech companies, manufacturing and hospitality at their shores.

EPF has been investing in the US since 2008. Returns on some of its overseas investment have been better than its investments in the country.

Moving forward, EPF needs to continue diversifying its investment, with very stringent criteria from its board, to ensure good returns which would translate into better dividends for its 14.7 million contributors.

As I have said many times before, Malaysia is a net capital exporter. Our companies — including government-linked companies — have invested about RM570 billion overseas as at June, as opposed to foreign direct investments of around RM550 billion in our country.

And, make no mistake — these investments made by companies are not the government’s money that could have been used for infrastructure or any socio-economic development back home.

We welcome foreign investments, including from the US. They have invested about RM70 billion in our manufacturing sector, and are strong in oil and gas, banking and insurance, services, and electrical as well as electronics. No less than 200,000 people are working in American companies in Malaysia. It, therefore, makes a lot of sense for our prime minister not only to have good rapport with the US president, but also with top corporate leaders.

Indeed, despite challenging global economic times, US companies (according to a survey by the US-Asean Business Council) remain confident about Malaysia. Some 63 per cent of them expect to generate profits in Malaysia this year.

US companies are also appreciative of our prime minister’s willingness to listen and engage with them. Our prime minister met a number of US corporate leaders during the Washington DC visit and a few of them
have plans to invest more in Malaysia. In all our meetings, US companies view Malaysia as an important destination.

We were able to reinforce to American leaders that Malaysia is an open economy that is very much a part of the global value chain. We made it clear that Malaysia is a rising star in the Asean region with a promising future.

The benefits that the US visit will bring to Malaysia, not only economically, but to our geopolitical position, will be deep and lasting.

Meanwhile, the opposition will not stop making noises, and along the way, expose their lack of comprehension regarding international diplomacy as well as global trade and investments. Such incompetence is unacceptable, especially coming from a group of individuals who actually posit themselves as the government-in-waiting.

BY:
YB DATO' SRI MUSTAPA MOHAMED
MITI MINISTER

Friday, September 15, 2017

MALAYSIA AIRLINES IS BUYING 16 NEW NEW AIRCRAFT FROM BOEING

1. YAB Dato’ Sri Najib (DSN), who is on an official visit to the United States, has announced that Malaysia Airlines (MAS) will buy more airplanes from the US, but the question is: can the national carrier afford it?

2. After all, not too long ago, MAS underwent a massive restructuring exercise that involved lying off thousands of employees, as well as cancelling foreign routes.

3. In June this year, MAS CEO told that the airline was looking at the possibility of axing more routes, particularly to Australia and New Zealand.

4. Flanked by top advisers in the Cabinet Room in the White House, DSN told Trump that MAS would buy 25 Boeing 737 jets and eight 787 Dreamliner’s, and would probably add another 25 737s in the near future — a deal he said that would be worth more than US$10 billion (RM42 billion) within five years.

5. MKR believed the plan to buy Boeing planes was a good move and the commitment to such a massive purchase would show other countries that the embattled national airline was on track to recover.

6. While other Asian airlines were bleeding red ink, MAS actually registered financial growth for this year.

7. MAS is earning again.

8. This is the best time for MAS to start buying new planes and the option is Boeing.

9. They have chosen Boeing, which is good, as it will strengthen the ties between Malaysia and the US.

10. The plane purchase was on top of other commitments the prime minister pledged during his visit.

11. Airline is a very competitive industry.

12. Every cent cost per km is crucial in deciding airline making profit or losing money.

13. MAS fleet profile is ageing. Its fuel cost per km is much higher compared to its competitor’s including Air Asia.

14. The KSF is to reduce operating cost where fuel accounts for 30%+. Air Asia keeps buying new plane as new planes offer better fuel efficiency engine vs old aircraft.

15. The lead time for delivery is more than 3 years.

16. Analyses are done on longer view not current.

17. Other airlines have started the replacement aircraft for quite sometimes and MAS lagged behind.

18. Either they change to new aircrafts or they continue losing money.

19. A simple choice.

20. A380 is not fuel effective.

MKR
COORDINATOR
Badan Inisiatif Jalinan Nasional (BIJAN)

Wednesday, September 13, 2017

HAPPY BIRTHDAY MALAYSIA

1. The formation of the new federation was planned to occur on 1 June 1963, but was later postponed to 31 August 1963, to coincide with the sixth “Hari Merdeka”.

2. Several issues related to objections of neighbouring Indonesia and the Philippines to the formation of Malaysia delayed the declaration to 16 September of the same year.

3. The postponement was also done to allow the United Nations team time to conduct fact-finding mission in North Borneo (now Sabah) and Sarawak regarding the two states participation in a new federation.

4. Contrary to popular beliefs, no referendum was ever conducted in both North Borneo and Sarawak.

5. The formation of Malaysia was made possible with the signing of the International Treaty the Malaysia Agreement 1963 between the United Kingdom, the Federation of Malaya (constituted by 11 states created under the Federation of Malaya Agreement 1957 ; as one component); Sarawak, North Borneo (renamed Sabah) and Singapore of the remaining component States.

6. The Malaysia Agreement 1963 set out the terms and conditions for the component States to be federated under a new constitution into one new nation called Malaysia.

7. It is under this Agreement that the "Malaysia Bill", the constitutions of Sarawak, Sabah and Singapore were created by agreement of all the parties (Singapore seceded on 9 August 1965).

8. Through the introduction of the Malaysia Bill to the Malayan Parliament on 9 July 1963, and consent from Tuanku Syed Putra, the Yang di-Pertuan Agong, on 29 August 1963.

9. Prior to the formation of Malaysia, Sarawak gained its Self-Government Administration on 22 July 1963, while North Borneo (which was renamed Sabah) began Self-Government Administration from the United Kingdom on 31 August 1963, thus coinciding with the sixth anniversary of the Malayan independence.

10. Prior to 2010, Malaysia Day was observed as a state public holiday in Sabah and Sarawak. Since 2010, Malaysia Day has been a nationwide public holiday. Prime Minister, YAB Dato’ Sri Najib Tun Razak made the decision after a question-and-answer session at Parliament on 19 October 2009, giving Malaysians two celebrations related to the country's independence.

11. MALAYSIA MODERATION is an ideal that belongs to all who live in Malaysia.

12. An approach that is about acceptance, harmony & peaceful co-existence.

13. Our forefathers fought for it during MERDEKA. We deserve to inherit a more open, rational & moderate Malaysia.

14. We can make it happen.

15. When we look beyond race, religion, cultural barriers & come together as Malaysians.

16. HAPPY BIRTHDAY MALAYSIA (16 September).

MKR
Coordinator
Badan Inisiatif Jalinan Nasional (BIJAN)

Monday, September 11, 2017

PENJELASAN RASIONALISASI SUBSIDI HARGA MINYAK

1. Harga minyak dunia di pegang berdasarkan Nilai Matawang USD.

2. Maka harga minyak di sesebuah negara adalah bergantung kpd nilai matawang semasa.

3. Langkah merasionalisasikan pemberian subsidi harga minyak merupakan suatu pelan tindakan berterusan kerajaan dalam segmen TRANFORMASI NEGARA.

4. Subsidi harga minyak yang diamalkan dahulu tanpa kita sedari, telah melahirkan masyarakat berkasta dari kalsifikasi taraf sosio ekonomi dan membawa refleksi serta representasi penjajahan baru dalam wajah “Kapitalis Feudal”.

5. Dari sudut kajian pakar ekonomi secara mikro, mereka telah menyarankankan bahawa pemberian subsidi yang membuta tuli semestinya tidak akan sampai dan berkesan kepada golongan sasar dan subsidi itu akan hanya memberi keuntungan kepada komuniti yang sedia kaya lagi elit dimana mereka menggunakan bahan api bagi berpuluh-puluh kenderaan mewah mereka. Apatah lagi syarikat-syaraikat besar membiyai kos bahanapi kenderaan syarikat.

6. Justeru, subsidi minyak kenderaan ini sewajarnya disalurkan terus kepada rakyat yang benar-benar layak!

7. Dibawah pentadbiran YAB Dato’ Sri Najib, kemajuan negara kini kian bercambah dengan begitu pesat, kualiti dan taraf hidup rakyat semakin meningkat, terbukti secara berkala; kuasa ekonomi rakyat Malaysia kini telah jauh berkembang, dengan kebolehupayaan rakyat menjana pendapatan tinggi yang memberi implikasi dan fenomena tersendiri dimana jutaan pendatang asing sanggup bergadai nyawa mahu datang ke Malaysia demi kelangsungan hidup.

8. Maka jutaan pendatang warga asing yang bermastautin di Malaysia saban waktu menggunakan kenderaan.

9. YAB Dato' Sri Najib telah "mendemokrasikan" sistem pengangkutan udara yang menyaksikan lahirnya syarikat-syarikat penerbangan yang menyediakan pengangkutan udara tambang murah lagi berpatutan untuk semua rakyat kita menggunakannya.

10. Ia juga telah menarik jutaan pelancong dari luar negara untuk datang melawat Malaysia dengan khidmat tambang kapalterbang yang murah.

11. Kehadiran puluhan juta pelancong warga asing ini telah memberi impak pada penggunaan bahanapi pada kenderaan yang mereka gunakan atau disewa.

12. Dasawarsa ini, terbukti nyata lagi berfakta; kemasukan FDI yang ranum, mekar dan bercambah, telah membawa syarikat-syarikat gergasi dunia datang dengan membawa tenaga kerja pakar dan professional dari negara mereka menetap di Malaysia.

13. Ternyata penggunaan kenderaan oleh pakar profesional ini akan melibatkan minyak bersubsidi yang sepatutnya dinikmati oleh rakyat kita sendiri, bukan orang luar.

14. Penggunaan bahanapi oleh warga asing telah mengakibatkan “Wang Subsidi” milik rakyat kita mengalir ke tangki minyak kenderaan yg digunakan oleh warga asing.

15. Mesyuarat jawatankuasa TRANSFORMASI Ekonomi Negara telah mengambil langkah bijak dengan menstrukturkan semula pemberian SUBSIDI harga Minyak.

16. Pemberian SUBSIDI ini DITERUSKAN melalui pemberian BR1M untuk golongan sasar.

17. Maka subsidi harga minyak yang dulunya banyak MASUK ke tangki minyak orang kaya dan warga asing, kini terus masuk ke akaun Rakyat Malaysia yang layak menerima BR1M.


Sekian Terima Kasih.
MKR,
Coordinator,
Badan Inisiatif Jalinan Nasional (BIJAN)

Friday, September 8, 2017

THE DIFFERENCES OF CHANGE MANAGEMENT VS CHANGE LEADERSHIP

1. We often asked about the difference between “change management” and “change leadership,” and whether it’s just a matter of semantics. These terms are not interchangeable.

2. The distinction between the two is actually quite significant. Change management, which is the term most everyone uses, refers to a set of basic tools or structures intended to keep any change effort under control.

3. The goal is often to minimize the distractions and impacts of the change. Change leadership, on the other hand, concerns the driving forces, visions and processes that fuel large-scale transformation.

4. There is a difference that is very fundamental, and it’s very big, between what is known today as “change management” and what we have been calling for some time “change leadership.”

5. The world basically uses change management, which is a set of processes and a set of tools and a set of mechanisms that are designed to make sure that when you do try to make some changes, A, it doesn’t get out of control, and B, the number of problems associated with it—you know, rebellion among the ranks, bleeding of cash that you can’t afford–doesn’t happen.

6. So it is a way of making a big change and keeping it, in a sense, under control. Change leadership is much more associated with putting an engine on the whole change process, and making it go faster, smarter, more efficiently. It’s more associated, therefore, with large scale changes.

7. Change management tends to be more associated—at least, when it works well—with smaller changes.

8. If we look around the world right now and just talk to people, it’s not just semantics. Everybody talks about managing change and change management, because that’s what they do.

9. If you look at all of the tools, they’re trying to push things along, but it’s trying to minimize disruptions, i.e., keep things under control. It’s trying to make sure change is done efficiently in the sense of you don’t go over budget—another control piece.

10. It’s done with little change management groups inside corporations, sometimes external consultants that are good at that, training in change management.

11. It’s done with task forces that are basically given the whole goal of push this thing along, but keep it under control.

12. It’s done with various kinds of relationships that are given names like “executive sponsors,” where the executive sponsor watches over this thing to make sure that it proceeds in an orderly way.

13. And change leadership is just fundamentally different—it’s an engine. It’s more about urgency. It’s more about masses of people who want to make something happen. It’s more about big visions.

14. It’s more about empowering lots and lots of people. Change leadership has the potential to get things a little bit out of control.

15. We don’t have the same degree of making sure that everything happens in a way we want at a time we want when we have the 1,000 horsepower engine.

16. What we want to do, of course, is have a highly skilled driver and a heck of a car, which will make sure our risks are nearly minimum. But it is fundamentally different.

17. The world, as we all know right now, talks about, thinks about, and does change management.

18. The world, as we all know, doesn’t do much change leadership, since change leadership is associated with the bigger leaps that we have to make, associated with windows of opportunity that are coming at us faster, staying open less time, bigger hazards and bullets coming at us faster, so you really have to make a larger leap at a faster speed.

19. Change leadership is going to be the big challenge in the future, and the fact that almost nobody is very good at it is—well, it’s obviously a big deal.

NOTES BY: JOHN KOTTER.


MKR

WHAT IS TIME MANAGEMENT

Time Management Definition:

1. “Time management” is the process of organizing and planning how to divide your time between specific activities. Good time management enables you to work smarter – not harder – so that you get more done in less time, even when time is tight and pressures are high. Fail to manage your time will damages your effectiveness and causes stress.

2. It seems that there is never enough time in the day. But, since we all get the same 24 hours, why is it that some people achieve so much more with their time than others? The answer lies in good time management.

3. The highest achievers manage their time exceptionally well. By using the time-management techniques in this section, you can improve your ability to function more effectively – even when time is tight and pressures are high.

4. Good time management requires an important shift in focus from activities to results: being busy isn’t the same as being effective. (Ironically, the opposite is often closer to the truth.)

5. Spending your day in a frenzy of activity often achieves less, because you’re dividing your attention between so many different tasks. Good time management lets you work smarter – not harder – so you get more done in less time.

What Is “Time Management?”

1. “Time management” refers to the way that you organize and plan how long you spend on specific activities.

2. It may seem counter-intuitive to dedicate precious time to learning about time management, instead of using it to get on with your work, but the benefits are enormous:

a) Greater productivity and efficiency.

b) A better professional reputation.

c) Less stress.

d) Increased opportunities for advancement.

e) Greater opportunities to achieve important life and career goals.

3. Failing to manage your time effectively can have some very undesirable consequences:

a) Missed deadlines.

b) Inefficient work flow.

c) Poor work quality.

d) A poor professional reputation and a stalled career.

e) Higher stress levels.

Spending a little time learning about time-management techniques will have huge benefits now – and throughout your career.

MKR

TASK CHECKING LIST

TASK CHECKING LIST

1. When tasks have multiple components, it can be challenging to track what has been completed versus what is still in progress, especially when different segments must be completed by different people.

2. To help you make these tasks more structured and easier to track, Write added a new, useful feature.

3. Now you can further break down your tasks into to-do lists or step-by-step instructions with the help of checklists in your task description.

4. To take advantage of checklists, look at your task description column or segment.

5. This feature will add another level of depth to keep your tasks organised and clear.

6. When listing the task's components in the description, it's up to you to order your list to suit your preference, whether that be by due date, assignee's, importance, or simply as ideas come to mind. Once a component is completed and you check its box, the item turns grey to fade out of focus. With checklists, all collaborators can easily see what has been finished and what needs to be done before the entire task is completed.

7. One of the cool things about the checklists is that they can help you avoid confusing scenarios when a task is assigned to several employees.

8. Before On the Job Training (OJT), one staff would mark an entire task as completed when only his or her individual contribution was done.

9. Now, when you create one task and assign that task to five different people, add a checklist to your task description for clearer workload distribution.

10. Use this feature and kindly remind John to go to the checklist within the task to indicate that he has finished only his portion.

11. When everyone has checked off their separate line items, the last contributor or task author knows to mark the entire task as completed.

12. Have you heard of small wins? Psychologists say that completing several smaller tasks one after another has a powerful motivating effect when you're in the middle of a large assignment. See how that works for you and your team with the new feature!

13. And for additional benefit, we hope checklists can serve as your convenient alternative while we continue working hard to bring subtasks to your workspace.


MKR

Thursday, September 7, 2017

SMART ATTITUDE

SMART Attitude Mind set.
1. How to Make our Plan and Objectives (P & O) Achievable?

- Use “SMART” tools to reach our P & O.

- Setting SMART P & O means we can clarify our ideas, focus our efforts, use our time and resources productively, and increase our chances of achieving what we want in life.

2. MKR will explore what SMART Attitudes are, and we'll look at how we can use it to achieve our P & O.

3. What Does SMART Mean?

- SMART is an acronym that we can use to guide our P & O setting.

4. To make sure our P & O are clear and reachable, each one should be:

a) S - Specific (simple, sensible, significant).

b) M - Measurable (meaningful, motivating).

c) A - Achievable (agreed, attainable).

d) R – Reasonable (realistic, resourced, results-based).

e) T – Timeliness ((time-based, time limited, time secure).

5. How to Use SMART?

A. Specific.

i) Our P & O should be clear and specific, otherwise we won't be able to focus our efforts or feel truly motivated to achieve it.

ii) When drafting our P & O, try to answer the five "W" and one “H” questions:

• What do we want to accomplish?

• Why is this goal important?

• Who is involved?

• Where is it located?

• When resources or limits are required?

• How to make it happen?

B. Measurable.

i) It's important to have measurable P & O, so that we can track our progress and stay motivated.

ii) Assessing progress helps us to stay focused, meet our deadlines, and feel the excitement of getting closer to achieving our P & O.

iii) A measurable goal should address questions such as:
• How much?
• How many?
• How will I know when it is accomplished?

3. Achievable.
i) Our P & O also needs to be realistic and attainable to be successful.

ii) In other words, it should stretch our abilities but still remain possible.

iii) When we set an achievable P & O, we may be able to identify previously overlooked opportunities or resources that can bring us closer to it.

iv) An achievable goal will usually answer questions such as:
 How can I accomplish this P & O?
 How realistic is the P & O, based on other constraints?

4. Relevant.

i) This step is about ensuring that our P & O matters to us, and that it also aligns with other relevant P & O.

ii) We all need support and assistance in achieving our P & O, but it's important to retain control over them.

iii) So, make sure that our P & O drive everyone forward, but that you're still responsible for achieving our own goal.

iv) A relevant P & O can answer "yes" to these questions:

• Does this seem worthwhile?
• Is this the right time?
• Does this match our other efforts/needs?

6. Timeliness.

i) Every P & O needs a target date, so that we have a deadline to focus on and something to work toward.

ii) This part of the SMART P & O criteria helps to prevent everyday tasks from taking priority over our longer-term P & O.

iii) A Timeliness P & O will usually answer these questions:

• When?
• What can we do six months from now?
• What can we do six weeks from now?
• What can we do today?

7. SMART Benefits.

i) SMART is an effective tool that provides the clarity, focus and motivation we need to achieve our goals.

ii) It can also improve our ability to reach it by encouraging us to define our objectives and set a completion date.

iii) SMART P & O are also easy to use by anyone, anywhere, without the need for specialist tools or training.

iv) SMART is a well-established tool that we can use to plan and achieve your objectives.

v) When we use SMART, we can create clear, attainable and meaningful P & O, and develop the motivation, action plan, and support needed to achieve it.


MKR

Tuesday, August 22, 2017

Failure Mode Effect Analysis (FMEA)

FAILURE MODE EFFECTS ANALYSIS (FMEA)
A) INTRO:
1. Also called: potential failure modes and effects analysis; failure modes, effects and criticality analysis (FMECA).

2. Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a step-by-step approach for identifying all possible failures in a design, a manufacturing or assembly process, or a product or service.

3. “Failure modes” means the ways, or modes, in which something might fail. Failures are any errors or defects, especially ones that affect the customer, and can be potential or actual.

4. “Effects analysis” refers to studying the consequences of those failures.

5. Failures are prioritized according to how serious their consequences are, how frequently they occur and how easily they can be detected.

6. The purpose of the FMEA is to take actions to eliminate or reduce failures, starting with the highest-priority ones.

7. Failure modes and effects analysis also documents current knowledge and actions about the risks of failures, for use in continuous improvement.

8. FMEA is used during design to prevent failures. Later it’s used for control, before and during on-going operation of the process. Ideally, FMEA begins during the earliest conceptual stages of design and continues throughout the life of the product or service.

9. Begun in the 1940s by the U.S. military, FMEA was further developed by the aerospace and automotive industries. Several industries maintain formal FMEA standards.

10. What follows is an overview and reference. Before undertaking an FMEA process, learn more about standards and specific methods in your organization and industry through other references and training.

B) When to Use FMEA:
a) When a process, product or service is being designed or redesigned, after quality function deployment.

b) When an existing process, product or service is being applied in a new way.

c) Before developing control plans for a new or modified process.

d) When improvement goals are planned for an existing process, product or service.

e) When analysing failures of an existing process, product or service.

f) Periodically throughout the life of the process, product or service


C) FMEA Procedure
Notes: (Again, this is a general procedure. Specific details may vary with standards of your organization or industry.)
i. Assemble a cross-functional team of people with diverse knowledge about the process, product or service and customer needs.

ii. Functions often included are: design, manufacturing, quality, testing, reliability, maintenance, purchasing (and suppliers), sales, marketing (and customers) and customer service.

iii. Identify the scope of the FMEA. Is it for concept, system, design, process or service?

iv. What are the boundaries?

v. How detailed should we be?

vi. Use flowcharts to identify the scope and to make sure every team member understands it in detail. (From here on, we’ll use the word “scope” to mean the system, design, process or service that is the subject of your FMEA.)

vii. Identify the functions of your scope. Ask, “What is the purpose of this system, design, process or service? What do our customers expect it to do?”

viii. Name it with a verb followed by a noun. Usually you will break the scope into separate subsystems, items, parts, assemblies or process steps and identify the function of each.

ix. For each function, identify all the ways failure could happen. These are potential failure modes.

x. If necessary, go back and rewrite the function with more detail to be sure the failure modes show a loss of that function.

xi. For each failure mode, identify all the consequences on the system, related systems, process, related processes, product, service, customer or regulations. These are potential effects of failure. Ask, “What does the customer experience because of this failure? What happens when this failure occurs?”

xii. Determine how serious each effect is. This is the severity rating, or S. Severity is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is insignificant and 10 is catastrophic.

xiii. If a failure mode has more than one effect, write on the FMEA table only the highest severity rating for that failure mode.

xiv. For each failure mode, determine all the potential root causes. Use tools classified as cause analysis tool, as well as the best knowledge and experience of the team. List all possible causes for each failure mode on the FMEA form.

xv. For each cause, determine the occurrence rating, or O. This rating estimates the probability of failure occurring for that reason during the lifetime of your scope.

xvi. Occurrence is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 is extremely unlikely and 10 is inevitable. On the FMEA table, list the occurrence rating for each cause.

xvii. For each cause, identify current process controls. These are tests, procedures or mechanisms that you now have in place to keep failures from reaching the customer.

xviii. These controls might prevent the cause from happening, reduce the likelihood that it will happen or detect failure after the cause has already happened but before the customer is affected.

xix. For each control, determine the detection rating, or D. This rating estimates how well the controls can detect either the cause or its failure mode after they have happened but before the customer is affected.

xx. Detection is usually rated on a scale from 1 to 10, where 1 means the control is absolutely certain to detect the problem and 10 means the control is certain not to detect the problem (or no control exists). On the FMEA table, list the detection rating for each cause.

xxi. (Optional for most industries) Is this failure mode associated with a critical characteristic? (Critical characteristics are measurements or indicators that reflect safety or compliance with government regulations and need special controls.)

xxii. If so, a column labelled “Classification” receives a Y or N to show whether special controls are needed. Usually, critical characteristics have a severity of 9 or 10 and occurrence and detection ratings above 3.

xxiii. Calculate the risk priority number, or RPN, which equals S × O × D. Also calculate Criticality by multiplying severity by occurrence, S × O. These numbers provide guidance for ranking potential failures in the order they should be addressed.

xxiv. Identify recommended actions. These actions may be design or process changes to lower severity or occurrence.

xxv. They may be additional controls to improve detection. Also note who is responsible for the actions and target completion dates.

xxvi. As actions are completed, note results and the date on the FMEA form. Also, note new S, O or D ratings and new RPNs.

MKR

JOB PRIORITY LIST

JOB PRIORITY LIST

1. The Key to Efficiency

Do you often feel overwhelmed by the amount of work you have to do, or do you find yourself missing deadlines? Or do you sometimes just forget to do something important, so that people have to chase you to get work done?
All of these are symptoms of not keeping a proper "Job Priority List." These are prioritized lists of all the tasks that you need to carry out. They list everything that you have to do, with the most important tasks at the top of the list, and the least important tasks at the bottom.

By keeping such a list, you make sure that your tasks are written down all in one place so you don't forget anything important. And by prioritizing tasks, you plan the order in which you'll do them, so that you can tell what needs your immediate attention, and what you can leave until later.

Job Priority Lists are essential if you're going to beat work overload. When you don't use them effectively, you'll appear unfocused and unreliable to the people around you.
When you do use them effectively, you'll be much better organized, and you'll be much more reliable.

You'll experience less stress, safe in the knowledge that you haven't forgotten anything important. More than this, if you prioritize intelligently, you'll focus your time and energy on high value activities, which will mean that you're more productive, and more valuable to your team.

Keeping a properly structured and thought-out list sounds simple enough. But it can be surprising how many people fail to use them at all, never mind use them effectively.
In fact, it's often when people start to use them effectively and sensibly that they make their first personal productivity breakthroughs, and start making a success of their careers.


2. Preparing a Job Priority List

Step 1:
Write down all of the tasks that you need to complete. If they're large tasks, break out the first action step, and write this down with the larger task. (Ideally, tasks or action steps should take no longer than 1-2 hours to complete.)
Notes: You may find it easier to compile several lists (covering personal, study, and workplace, for example). Try different approaches and use the best for your own situation.

Step 2:
Run through these tasks allocating priorities from A (very important, or very urgent) to F (unimportant, or not at all urgent).
If too many tasks have a high priority, run through the list again and demote the less important ones. Once you have done this, rewrite the list in priority order.

3. Using Your Job Priority List
To use your list, simply work your way through it in order, dealing with the A priority tasks first, then the Bs, then the Cs, and so on. As you complete tasks, tick them off or strike them through.
What you put on your list and how you use it will depend on your situation. For instance, if you're in a sales-type role, a good way to motivate yourself is to keep your list relatively short, and aim to complete it every day.

Sometimes it needs to focus on a longer-term task in the list. You may continue to monitor it day-by-day basis.

Many people find it helpful to spend, say, 10 minutes at the end of the day, organising tasks on their list for the next day.

Notes: When you're prioritising tasks, make sure you differentiate between urgency and importance.

Although using a paper list is an easy way to get started, software-based approaches can be more efficient in spite of the learning curve. These can remind you of events or tasks that will soon be overdue, they can also be synchronised with your phone or email, and they can be shared with others on your team, if you're collaborating on a project.

There are many time management software programs available. At a simple level, you can use MSWord or MSExcel to manage your lists. Some versions of Microsoft Outlook, and other email services such as Gmail, have task lists as standard features. Remember the Milk is another popular online task management tool that will sync with your smartphone, PDA, or email account. It can even show you where your tasks are on a map.

One of the biggest advantages to using a software-based approach to manage your list is that you can update it easily. For example, instead of scratching off tasks and rewriting the list every day, software allows you to move and prioritise tasks quickly.

Notes: All of us think, plan and work differently. A program that works well for a colleague might not work well for you simply because you learn and think in your own way. This is why it's useful to research and try several different ways of compiling your list before deciding on a single system

Job Priority Lists can help you get, and stay, on top of important projects and piles of tasks or decisions.

For instance, imagine you're heading a team that's working on a project. There are so many tasks to do, and so many people doing them, that staying on top of it all seems overwhelming.

In this situation, structure your list by team member, writing out tasks and deadlines for every person on the project. Each day as you write out your own tasks that need completion, you can also check your Team To-Do List to see who's working on what, and if anything is due in that day. You can also include other tasks that you need to complete as part of your job.

Or, imagine you're in a sales role and have a long list of people who you need to talk to. You write out a list of everyone you need to call and every client you need to see, and start prioritising.

You know that one client really keen on your product and is ready to buy, so you prioritise them with an "A" – this is a prospect that's really worth focusing on. Conversely, you know that another prospect is playing you off against several competitors, meaning that you'll make less profit, and that there's a reasonable chance that you won't get the business. You prioritize this person with a "D". It's worth making some effort here, but you should focus most of your attention on better prospects.

Tip: Job Priority Lists are particularly useful when you have a small number of tasks that you need to complete. However, they can become cumbersome when you have too many items on them, or when you need to progress multiple projects. At this stage, it's worth starting to use Action Programs, which are designed to manage more complex situations reliably.
3. Advantages of Job Priority List

• To be well organized in the workplace, you need to be using Job Priority Lists. By using them, you will ensure that:

 You remember to carry out all necessary tasks.

 You tackle the most important jobs first, and don't waste time on trivial tasks.

 You don't get stressed by a large number of unimportant jobs.

 Start by listing all of the tasks that you must carry out.

 Mark the importance of the task next to it, with a priority from A (very important) to F (unimportant). Redraft the list into this order of importance. Then carry out the jobs at the top of the list first. These are the most important, most beneficial tasks to complete.
MKR

ON the JOB TRAINING (OJT)

On-the-Job Training (OJT)

Management development is a systematic process of growth and development by which the Head of Departments (HODs) develop their abilities to staff. It is concerned with not only improving the performance of staffs but also giving them opportunities for growth and development.
There are two methods through which staffs can improve their knowledge and skills. One is through formal training and other is through on the job experiences. On the job training is very important since real learning takes place only when one practices what they have studied.

1. On-the-job Training (OJT) Methods:
This is the most common method of training in which a trainee is placed on a specific job and taught the skills and knowledge necessary to perform it.
The advantages of OJT are as follows:
a. On the job method is a flexible method.
b. It is a less expensive method.
c. The trainee is highly motivated and encouraged to learn.
d. Much arrangement for the training is not required.

On-the-job training methods are as follows:
1. Job rotation:
This training method involves movement of trainee from one job to another gain knowledge and experience from different job assignments. This method helps the trainee under­stand the problems of other employees.

2. Coaching:
Under this method, the trainee is placed under a particular supervisor who functions as a coach in training and provides feedback to the trainee. Sometimes the trainee may not get an opportunity to express his/her ideas.

3. Job instructions:
Also known as step-by-step training in which the trainer explains the way of doing the jobs to the trainee and in case of mistakes, corrects the trainee.

4. Committee assignments:
A group of trainees are asked to solve a given organizational problem by discussing the problem. This helps to improve team work.
Prepared:
MKR.

Plan Do Check Action (PDCA) Cycle

1. WHAT IS PLAN-DO-CHECK-ACTION (PDCA) CYCLES?

PLAN
- Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the expected output (the target or goals).
- By establishing output expectations, the completeness and accuracy of the specification is also a part of the targeted improvement.

DO
- Implement the plan, execute the process, and implement.
- Collect data for charting and analysis in the following "CHECK" and "ACTION" steps.

CHECK
- Study the actual results (measured and collected in "DO" above) and compare against the expected results (targets or goals from the "PLAN") to ascertain any differences.

- Look for deviation in implementation from the plan and also look for the appropriateness and completeness of the plan to enable the execution, i.e., "Do".
- Charting data can make this much easier to see trends over several PDCA cycles and in order to convert the collected data into information.

- Information is what you need for the next step "ACTION".

ACTION
- If the CHECK shows that the PLAN that was implemented in DO is an improvement to the prior standard (baseline), then that becomes the new standard (baseline) for how the organization should ACTION going forward.

- If the CHECK shows that the PLAN that was implemented in DO is not an improvement, then the existing standard (baseline) will remain in place.

- In either case, if the CHECK showed something different than expected (whether better or worse), then there is some more learning to be done and that will suggest potential future PDCA cycles.

- Note that some who teach PDCA assert that the ACTION involves making adjustments or corrective actions but generally it would be counter to PDCA thinking to propose and decide upon alternative changes without using a proper PLAN phase, or to make them the new standard (baseline) without going through DO and CHECK steps.



2. WHEN TO USE PDCA CYCLE?

- As a model for continuous improvement.
- When starting a new improvement project.
- When developing a new or improved design of a process, product or service.
- When defining a repetitive work process.
- When planning data collection and analysis in order to verify and prioritize problems or root causes.
- When implementing any change.


MKR

Wednesday, June 7, 2017

PDRM REDUCING THE CRIME RATE BY 47% FROM 2010 TO 2016. WELL DONE OUR BOYS IN BLUE

The Malaysia Crime Prevention Foundation (MCPF) congratulates the police for its success in reducing the crime rate by 47% from 2010 till 2016 since the implementation of the National Key Result Areas.

It is a good piece of news for the public who are concerned about safety and well-being.

Deputy Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr Ahmad Zahid Hamidi, who is also Home Minister, was reported to have said that the number of cases recorded had decreased from 209,817 in 2009 to 112,354 in 2016.

However, it is our wish that this substantial crime rate reduction will also reflect the public’s perception on crime.

According to the National Transformation Programme 2016 annual report, the Perception of Crime Indicator has been reduced from 80% in 2015 to 61% last year.

While the decline in crime rate should be appreciated, we have to accept the fact that the public’s concern and fear of crime is still high.

Although it is important to have figures to indicate the police’s efforts in reducing crime, it is equally important to have an updated survey of the people’s perception of crime and fear of crime.

More efforts must be made by all quarters, including non-governmental organisations such as MCPF, to help improve the public’s perception on police efforts to fight crime.

Among the measures that can be taken to improve public perception is to ensure police’s omnipresence at all times.

At the same time, the Government should give priority to efforts to improve public perception on crime.

All parties must play their role to help police maintain security and protect Malaysia from internal and external threats, including those which come from militant groups.

We cannot be complacent and must always be vigilant.

We must appreciate the continuous efforts made by the authorities to curb terrorism and extremism, as it can help avoid such incidents from happening here and maintain peace and harmony in the country.

DEDICATION:

TAN SRI LEE LAM THYE

Senior vice-chairman

Malaysia Crime Prevention Foundation

MKR.

SPIRIT OF RAMADHAN

Every year Muslims from all over the world and from all ethnic and economic backgrounds begin fasting from dawn to sunset every day during a most blessed month in the Islamic tradition, known as Ramadan. But what makes Ramadan a blessed month? Why do Muslims fast during this month? What are the spiritual benefits of fasting? All these questions and more are addressed in this article that introduces you to a month long spiritual journey that over 1.4 billion Muslims engage in worldwide.

The Quran says what means:
“It was the month of Ramadan in which the Quran was revealed from on high as guidance for humanity and a self-evident proof of that guidance, and as the standard by which to discern the true from the false.” (Quran 2:185).

The entire month of Ramadan is in essence a celebration of the Quran’s revelation, which is described as a “Guide and Mercy for those who do well.” (Quran 31:3).

Ramadan celebrates God’s Mercy by which He sent a guiding light in the Quran that leads human life towards the path of good and virtue and protects the human soul from evil and vice.

Muslims show their gratitude to God for this guidance by abstaining from eating, drinking and sexual intimacy during Ramadan, as a way of coming closer to God and developing a deep inner awareness of God’s presence in life. This internal mechanism of feeling God’s presence leads the soul to do right even under life’s most difficult situations, and protects the soul against wrongdoing even when it is the easier or more tempting path to take.

This is why the Quran switches to a most intimate relationship between God and servant immediately following the passage on fasting in Ramadan (Quran 2:183-185).

“When My servants ask you about Me, I am close indeed—I hearken to the prayer of the supplicant when one calls on Me; so let them hearken to Me, and let them believe in Me, that they may go the right way.” (Quran 2:186)

When the soul enters into a station of gratitude and submission to its Lord, through fasting, there is a recognition that life has been given by God as a gift and trust to be used for good works that reflect God’s mercy, compassion, love, generosity and so on. In fact, the Quran says that the natural inclination of our souls is to submit to God’s Will by having sincere belief in One God and doing righteous acts of worship (Quran 30:30).

As such, the very concept of sin, in the Islamic tradition, is known as an act of oppression against one’s own soul for forcing it into a state that is antithetical to its very nature and created purpose (Quran 3:117, among many other verses). When a soul persists in sinning, it becomes a slave to its own lower desires, a prisoner of its own passions (Quran 25:43).

Fasting, then, seeks to free the soul from these shackles by suppressing the lower self of desire and raising the God-conscious soul of giving that naturally aspires towards good. By depriving the soul of life’s basic necessities for some hours, one is able to teach the soul self-restraint and self-control from such evils as anger, revenge, lying, stealing, sexual immorality and so on.

This is why Prophet Muhammad said that “When anyone of you is fasting on a day, he should neither indulge in obscene language nor should he raise his voice; and if anyone insults him or tries to quarrel with him, he should say: ‘I am fasting.’” The Prophet also warned Muslims not to make fasting an uneventful ritual that has no affect on the character and habits of a person: “If anyone does not refrain from lies and false conduct, God has no need for him to abstain from his food and drink.”

One of the most important qualities fasting seeks to develop within an individual is humility before God and God’s creation. Hunger and thirst cause one to realize that if it were not for God’s Mercy and Sustenance, one would be in a most difficult and undesirable state of affairs. Fasting is a humbling experience, which is an important characteristic of a righteous soul, for false pride and arrogance can never live side-by-side with sincere piety.

The act of fasting, therefore, also provides the fortunate, wealthy members of society to experience for a time the pain and suffering which millions of people go through every day without food, water and other basic necessities of life. Fasting bridges the gap between rich and poor, sustained and impoverished, fulfilled and needy.

This experience should then inspire compassion and mercy, which is manifest by generosity of wealth and time to help those in need. Muslims are encouraged especially during this month to go out and feed the hungry and to spend their wealth on good causes, such as building schools, hospitals, soup kitchens and so on, in the tradition of Prophet Muhammad, may the mercy and blessings of God be upon him, whose generosity would increase ten-folds during Ramadan.

In the Islamic tradition, God promises to return all acts of goodness and generosity in this blessed month by ten-times, both in this world and in the hereafter.

Due to the blessings and rewards associated with Ramadan, Muslims are encouraged to share their food with their neighbours and to invite guests to their home to begin the fast at sunrise and for breaking of the fast at sunset.

Muslims are also encouraged to significantly increase their worship to God during this month, and therefore special prayers are offered in every Mosque well into the night, with most Mosques packed with worshippers.

As such, Ramadan always brings with it a strong communal atmosphere and ties between the communities are strengthened greatly as a result. Most Muslims are therefore very sad to see the month of Ramadan go and its return is highly anticipated well in advance of its arrival.

In conclusion, Ramadan is a celebration of God’s guidance to humanity, through the Quran, which is a guide for doing good and a warning against evil. In order to bring the soul into harmony with the Quranic ideals of belief and virtue, fasting is prescribed as a way for individuals to come closer to God and to lift their souls to new heights of piety.

In doing so, the entire human body is able to transform itself into an agent of positive moral and social change that seeks to replace miserliness with generosity, anger with patience, revenge with love, and war with peace—in effect, replacing good with evil in the world.

A saying by God transmitted through Prophet Muhammad, known as a hadith qudsi, best explains the transformation that takes place in an individual through good acts, which in part are inspired by fasting. “And the most beloved thing with which My servant comes nearer to Me is what I have enjoined upon him; and My servant keeps on coming closer to Me through performing extra righteous deeds till I love him. When I love him, I become the hearing with which he hears, seeing with which he sees, hands with he acts, and legs with which he walks; and if he asks of Me, I give him, and if he asks My protection, I protect him.”


MKR

Thursday, December 15, 2016

NEVER GIVE UP ATTITUDE

When you have that never give up attitude, success is always right around the corner. But people do give up and in more cases than not, it’s just before success is realised.

Every time I hear the phrase never give up, it reminds me of a story in Napoleon Hill ‘s “Think and Grow Rich”. It’s the tale of gold miners who dug and dug and dug with out finding any gold and gave up. It was found that where they gave up was 3 feed from a major vein of gold. If they would have had a never give up attitude, they would have realised their dream.

We’ve all had things that we’ve worked for that didn’t pan out the way we thought they would. Things would be going along great and then something happens that causes us to give up. It could be a life event, the fear of the unknown, or any number of other things. But we did give up.

So how can we develop and maintain that never give up attitude?

4 Ways to Develop a “Never Give Up” Attitude.

1. Analyse the situation. When you hit a road block that is preventing you from achieving your goals, take a step back and look at the situation. Analyse the problem to be able to find a solution. It could be that you may find that the road block is there to tell you you’re heading in the wrong direction and it’s time to change course. Don’t over think of over analyse things. Just look for the solution or a way to get back on course.

2.Reward Yourself. When you’ve reached a milestone in your journey, take the time to reward yourself. Give yourself a pat on the back for a job well done. You could treat yourself to a night out, a special dinner etc. But remember to get back on task and continue on your course.

3. Have confidence. Keep and maintain your confidence that you will reach your goals. Do activities that fuel inspiration and build confidence. Do things you’re good at and enjoy.

4. Set Small attainable goals. You may have a goal that seems very large and almost unattainable. Break it down into smaller steps and smaller goals. When setting goals, keep them specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time-targeted, (S.M.A.R.T ) goals.

Be sure to listen to the replay and hear MKR’s shared explanation of these 4 ways to develop a never give up attitude.

Never give up on your dreams. Never give up on your goals. And never give up on yourself!

#Shared by: MKR

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

A LETTER TO MKR

Dear Brother MKR,

Winners are made, not born. Wow... so young and so successful.

Alhamdulillah. It is very comforting to learn there is an “Anak Melayu” who thrives in the corporate world.

To get where you are, I believe you have worked hard, been steadfast to your principles and have the right attitude.

Can't you see right now that my eyes are green with envy?

Great inspiration indeed.

From the start, the first time we met, I knew all along that you are my junior of many years.

But maturity is not reflected by age. At work, I am surrounded by peers whom most I address as “adik-adik”.

Nevertheless, I am overwhelmed by their maturity and dedication to their career. The team in MRSM KK epitomizes hard work and unity.

They have been my source of inspiration. I don't have to look far. Naturally, I suffer the saddest feeling leaving them behind to seek greener pasture in my new assigned as MRSM Principal at East Cost Peninsular.

There is another junior of mine who has passion in what he does.

We used to exchange economics lecture notes.

He was the President of Kelab UMNO('85-'88) at our university (Wellington Univeristy, New Zealand).

When asked what his ambition was, he said, 'Prime Minister of Malaysia'.

I did not mean to be cruel but I had to giggle.

Well, now he is the MP for “Pontian” paving his way towards his noble goal with a truly sense of patriotism deeply ingrained in him since he was a student.

I think I have found my new source of inspiration to whet my appetite for betterment in life...

This is you “Brother MKR” – very young and success!

Yours Faithfully,
MRSM PRINCIPAL.

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

SAFETY & HEALTH OFFICER (SHO) IN SCHOOL

YAB Dato' Sri Najib Tun Razak,
Malaysian Prime Minister.

Via:
YBhg Datuk Akmar Hisham Mokhles
Prime Minister Office.

RE: SAFETY & HEALTH OFFICER (SHO) IN SCHOOL

YAB Dato' Sri,

With reference to the above, we humbly suggest that the Malaysian Government, particularly the Ministry of Education to take seriously the cases of accidents resulting in death at school.

Crooning like the rhythm of old newspapers, when the fatal accidents happened in the school, then all the relevant authorities wants to set up an accident investigation committees.

But as usual, after 2-3 months; this committee's name has disappeared from public attention.

So we will "WAIT" another accident at other school, then the name of the Committee of Inquiry resurfaced.

We propose that the " Safety & Health " as one of the new subjects in schools . In fact , the Ministry of Higher Education should urge our local Universities encourage the Government to open new courses at their campus as construction and manufacturing industries are the lack of specialists in this field

The SHO was also appointed from among teachers who have been trained in the NIOSH (National Institute of Safety & Health) to obtain a professional and well-established practice at the expiration of the Professional Certificate.

Imagine if we let how many more students and teachers themselves vulnerable to accidents in the school environment.

As a Government which always precedes the People; we believe this will soon be realized by our beloved Prime Minister

Therefore, the appointment of SHO in each school is highly needed. Besides teaching regular subjects, SHO Teachers will be supervising and monitoring the security system in the school environment.

MKR

Thursday, July 28, 2016

WHAT IS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

a. A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction.

b. In a TQM effort, all members of an organisation participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.

c. Total Quality Management TQM, also known as total productive maintenance, describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction.

d. In a TQM effort, all members of an organisation participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.

e. The 8 Primary Elements of TQM: Total quality management can be summarised as a management system for a customer-focused organisation that involves all employees in continual improvement. It uses strategy, data, and effective communications to integrate the quality discipline into the culture and activities of the organisation. Many of these concepts are present in modern Quality Management Systems, the successor to TQM. Here are the 8 principles of total quality management:

1. Customer-focused
The customer ultimately determines the level of quality. No matter what an organisation does to foster quality improvement—training employees, integrating quality into the design process, upgrading computers or software, or buying new measuring tools—the customer determines whether the efforts were worthwhile.

2. Total employee involvement
All employees participate in working toward common goals. Total employee commitment can only be obtained after fear has been driven from the workplace, when empowerment has occurred, and management has provided the proper environment. High-performance work systems integrate continuous improvement efforts with normal business operations. Self-managed work teams are one form of empowerment.

3. Process-cantered
A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. A process is a series of steps that take inputs from suppliers (internal or external) and transforms them into outputs that are delivered to customers (again, either internal or external). The steps required to carry out the process are defined, and performance measures are continuously monitored in order to detect unexpected variation.

4. Integrated system
Although an organisation may consist of many different functional specialities often organised into vertically structured departments, it is the horizontal processes interconnecting these functions that are the focus of TQM.
Micro-processes add up to larger processes, and all processes aggregate into the business processes required for defining and implementing strategy. Everyone must understand the vision, mission, and guiding principles as well as the quality policies, objectives, and critical processes of the organisation. Business performance must be monitored and communicated continuously.
An integrated business system may be modelled after the Baldrige National Quality Program criteria and/or incorporate the ISO 9000 standards. Every organisation has a unique work culture, and it is virtually impossible to achieve excellence in its products and services unless a good quality culture has been fostered. Thus, an integrated system connects business improvement elements in an attempt to continually improve and exceed the expectations of customers, employees, and other stakeholders.
5. Strategic and systematic approach
A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and systematic approach to achieving an organisation's vision, mission, and goals. This process, called strategic planning or strategic management, includes the formulation of a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component.

6. Continual improvement
A major thrust of TQM is continual process improvement. Continual improvement drives an organisation to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to become more competitive and more effective at meeting stakeholder expectations.

7. Fact-based decision making
In order to know how well an organisation is performing, data on performance measures are necessary. TQM requires that an organisation continually collect and analyse data in order to improve decision making accuracy, achieve consensus, and allow prediction based on past history.

8. Communications
During times of organisational change, as well as part of day-to-day operation, effective communications plays a large part in maintaining morale and in motivating employees at all levels. Communications involve strategies, method, and timeliness.

Shared by: MKR

Thursday, July 21, 2016

SEVEN (7) OFFICE MANAGEMENT SKILLS BY MKR

1. Start your day with “SUPER 5S” activity – do it by yourself:
a) Spend 10-20 minutes to do Cleaning & Arrangement at your work station, files, papers, etc.
b) Take out and scrap all unnecessary items and keep safe all important documents.
c) Upgrade your File Master List, File Detail List, Cabinet Master List, etc.
d) Soft Copy File: Scan all relevant documents, letters, memos, reports, etc. Keep in PC Folder. (Copy to CD).

2. Talk to your staff – in better working environment all staff sit together in relax mode and share about daily task and follow up. All staff acknowledges everybody schedule and easy to get help each other as ONE TEAM spirit. In other terms this system is called “STAFF WORK STATION MEETING” (Spend about 10-20 minutes).

3. Motivation to Staff – Call your staff to your office and spend 10-20 minutes to listen their ideas and problem. Otherwise you can go to your staff work station and start to communicate in a highly positive motivational and professional manner.

4. Develop your Staff Skill & Knowledge – Always sharing what you have done and try to share with your staff. Next process, let your staff do it and both of you share it together to do it. Dare to Dream. Dare to fail. Dare to learn from mistakes. Mistakes are a process to develop our skills.

5. Team Work Spirit - Always sharing with your relevant staff on what are you doing and follow up. Always give your positive remarks on your staff good efforts and positive attitudes.

6. Support and Promote your staff – Always support our staff by giving them more new tasks and job scope to promote their skills and knowledge. Give them a positive motivation such as they are future company Management Team.


7. Discipline without punishment – Management by example, management by mutual respect and understanding. Management by self-discipline. Rewards system for good and excellent discipline staff.



MKR

LEADERSHIP

LEADERSHIP & INTER PERSONAL SKILLS

Leadership can encompass every other positive characteristics of the human individual. However, a lot of people do not realize this fact. People attend to their needs and constantly battle with the struggles they face in life, but rarely do they notice that the solutions they need are just a stone throw away if they could just have time to cultivate some of the leadership traits listed below.

Why is it important to have these skills?

Acquiring leadership skills is necessary for you sustain a good relationship with people in your society. Other than that, it allows you to develop your self-esteem. A lot of people need someone to look up to and establishing these traits within your own character, you boost your interpersonal capabilities allowing you to make more significant connections with other people.

1. Association, Partnership - Two heads are better than one. If you learn how to associate with other people and build partnerships everywhere you go, you increase the chances of multiplying your resources and extending your reach. Associating with other like-minded individuals and creating partnerships will also allow you to gather more ideas to reach your goals.

2. Affirmation, Praise - People who work for you or under you also expect to be appreciated for their efforts. It gives them assurance that you value their work and gives more room for creativity and improvement to grow. A pat on the back, a congratulatory remark, or even a handshake is enough for somebody to feel appreciated and valued.

3. Incentive, Motivation, Encouragement - Every once in a while, the people you lead may need a little push to be able to continue performing at their best. Every leader knows that his people need to be motivated and encouraged from time to time. Conformity and monotony are the enemies of growth.

4. Mentoring, Support, Enabling, and Advice - Encourage your people to become better performers and you will have an army of reliable soldiers. A good leader understands that sharing his wisdom to his followers is one of the key principles responsible for his success. Leadership is not only about personal growth. It’s also about helping other people grow to their fullest potential.

5. Caring - A good leader must learn how sincerely care for his for his followers and other people around him. A person who shows empathy and sincerity understands that life is something to be valued. Every life on earth is precious.

6. Mutuality, Compatibility, and Chemistry - Good leaders can create instant rapport with anybody. They instantly know how to get in step with people from every facet of the society. Understand that by helping other people, you contribute to your own success.

7. Empowerment - Leadership is not about slavery. It is about liberating other people from it. A good leader realizes that replicating himself by empowering other people enables him to accomplish a lot more and generally contribute to the growth of his community.



MKR

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

THE IMPORTANT OF WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

1. Waste water management plants are certainly very much necessary to dirt free the water through all the waste as well as harmful microorganisms.

2. However, apart from that people on their part must also put efforts to avoid putting any type of waste fabric into dampen sources.

3. Various urban areas have found a water reusing expert plan to verify the decently composed utilisation of important water assets.

4. Under such an arrangement, water-related measures are inspected from the perspective of water reusing and all exercises inside the city are completed in a manner solid with the expert arrangement.

5. Water Treatment Plants do what they say. They treat the dilute that goes our channels before discharging it go into nature's domain.

6. Wastewater management plants have developed significantly in relation to whether.

7. Their first and most imperative reason for existing is to clear the water we use in our homes of strong materials.

8. This methodology of screening and settlement is known as essential treatment.

9. In spite of the fact that this evacuates the biggest garbage things, the wastewater is still overflowing with natural material, which does not smell incredible and, if dumped specifically into our water bodies, can contaminate them and expend accessible oxygen as it breaks down.

10. This is the reason practically all treatment plants in utilise a methodology of air circulation to energise the development of helpful microorganism, which break down the natural material in the waste, in a procedure, called auxiliary treatment.

11. As a rule, the water is then released, frequently after disinfection with Ultra Violet light, which slaughters possibly infection bringing on microscopic organisms and infections.

12. However as city populaces develop, more supplements are going into the wastewater treatment offices and being released into our conduits.

13. These overabundance supplements act like manure to the plants and green growth living in the water.

14. Phytoplankton (small infinitesimal plants) starts to sprout wildly, shutting out daylight required by different plants lower in the water segment.

15. Once the green growth achieves greatest limit it starts to vanish in mass numbers.

16. The dead cells sink to the lowest part where microorganisms disintegrate the cells, utilising up oxygen within the procedure.

17. As the microbes, haul oxygen out of the water, the fish, shellfish and other organic entity in the territory start to suffocate.

18. Those that cannot swim away in the end kick the bucket, giving more nourishment to the oxygen-expending microbes.

19. Then again, late headway's in innovation and mindfulness have achieved new advances which can treat wastewater to uproot these supplements is carried out in the third stage, known as tertiary treatment.

20. A few urban areas have secured a Water Treatment Plants to guarantee the productive utilisation of valuable water assets.

21. Under such an arrangement, water-related measures are analysed from the perspective of water reusing and all exercises inside the city are done in a way reliable with the expert arrangement.

Shared By: MKR

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

BUSINESS ANALYSIS: SICHUAN PROVINCE, PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA

1. Sichuan is a province in Western Region with its capital in Chengdu.

2. It is bordered by Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces, Chongqing Municipality, and the Tibet Autonomous Region. It has an area of 487,000 km2.

3. Sichuan Province is a traditionally agricultural region in the southwest of China, home to more than 82.42 million people.

4. The central government’s policy in the 1980s and 90s by providing incentives for growth in coastal areas, has lagged behind inland provinces including Sichuan.

5. However, recent attention due to regional income disparities has prompted the government to promote economic incentives and infrastructure investments in the inland areas.

6. Sichuan’s economy responded quickly, growing by 15.1 per cent in 2010 to top RMB 1.6 trillion (compared to a national average of 10.3 per cent), with growth led by town and village enterprises (TVEs) and the private sector.

7. More recent studies show continued strong growth. Sichuan’s capital, Chengdu City, forms part of an emerging urban industrial corridor which stretches southeast through to the newly-designated municipality of Chongqing, now the world’s largest single metropolitan area in terms of the population.

8. The area lies in the Sichuan basin and is surrounded by the Himalaya to the West, Qinling range to the North, and mountainous areas of Yunnan to the South.

9. The Yangtze River flows through the basin and thus is upstream to areas of Eastern Region.

10. The Minjiang River, in central Sichuan is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River, which it joins at Yibin.

11. The climate is often heavily foggy. Several cities are quite polluted and seldom get sunny days.

12. Administrative Subdivisions The current immediate administrative divisions of Sichuan consist of eighteen prefecture-level cities and three autonomous prefectures.

13. Major cities are Chengdu, Mianyang, Deyang, Yibin, Luzhou, Zigong and Panzhihua.

14. In 2010, Chengdu’s population topped 14 million. Economy Sichuan has been historically known as the "Kingdom of Abundance".

15. It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product from the province.

16. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar canes, sweet potatoes, peaches and rapeseeds. Sichuan is rich in mineral resources.

17. It has more than 132 different kind of proven underground mineral resources of which the reserves of 11 minerals (including vanadium, titanium, and lithium) are the largest in China.

18. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of cobalt of the whole country.

19. Sichuan is also one of the major industrial bases of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel industries, the province has established a light - manufacturing sector comprising of building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing.

20. Chengdu and Mianyang are the production bases for textiles and electronics products. Deyang, Panzhihua, and Yibin are the production bases for machinery, metallurgy industries, and wine respectively.

21. Great strides have been achieved in accelerating the development of Sichuan into a modern hi-tech industrial base by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries.

22. The auto industry is a key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong, and Luzhou.

23. Other important industries in Sichuan include aerospace and defence (military) industries.

24. A number of China’s rockets (Long March rockets) and satellites have been launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

25. Sichuan’s beautiful landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province into a major center for tourism.

26. The Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam ever constructed lies on the Yangtze River in nearby Hubei province for - among others - the purpose of controlling flooding in the Sichuan Basin, neighbouring Yunnan province, and downstream.

27. The dam is hailed by some as a Chinese effort to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases but others have criticized it for its potential harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of refugees, loss of archaeological sites, and ecological damage.

28. Local Regulation Sichuan authority formulated ― Sichuan Provincial Monitoring Management of Industrial Pollution Source in 1992, thus Sichuan has a local system of measures in place for industrial pollution management.

29. To ensure the drinking water security and water resources, the Sichuan Provincial People’s Congress approved ―Sichuan Management Regulations of Drinking Water Source Protection in 1997.

30. To enhance the hazardous solid waste management and alleviate the pollution caused by solid waste, Sichuan authority formulated ― Prevention Method of Hazardous Solid Waste Pollution in Sichuan in 2003.

31. To improve the environmental protection processes, Sichuan formulated ― Level Certification Management Method of Environmental Protection Process Design in 2006. Based on ― Environmental Protection Law of China, this regulation provides the executable measures for the local environmental protection work.

#Shared BY: MKR#

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

1. You're working at your desk, trying to ignore the tingling or numbness you've had for months in your hand and wrist. Suddenly, a sharp, piercing pain shoots through the wrist and up your arm. Just a passing cramp?

2. More likely you have carpal tunnel syndrome, a painful progressive condition caused by compression of a key nerve in the wrist. What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

3. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm of the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist.

4. The median nerve controls sensations to the palm side of the thumb and fingers (although not the little finger), as well as impulses to some small muscles in the hand that allow the fingers and thumb to move.

5. The carpal tunnel - a narrow, rigid passageway of ligament and bones at the base of the hand - houses the median nerve and tendons.

6. Sometimes, thickening from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel and causes the median nerve to be compressed.

7. The result may be pain, weakness, or numbness in the hand and wrist, radiating up the arm.

8. Although painful sensations may indicate other conditions, carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common and widely known of the entrapment neuropathies in which the body's peripheral nerves are compressed or traumatized.

9. What are the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome? Symptoms usually start gradually, with frequent burning, tingling, or itching numbness in the palm of the hand and the fingers, especially the thumb and the index and middle fingers.

10. Some carpal tunnel sufferers say their fingers feel useless and swollen, even though little or no swelling is apparent.

11. The symptoms often first appear in one or both hands during the night, since many people sleep with flexed wrists.

12. A person with carpal tunnel syndrome may wake up feeling the need to "shake out" the hand or wrist.

13. As symptoms worsen, people might feel tingling during the day.

14. Decreased grip strength may make it difficult to form a fist, grasp small objects, or perform other manual tasks.

15. In chronic and/or untreated cases, the muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. Some people are unable to tell between hot and cold by touch.

16. What are the causes of carpal tunnel syndrome? Carpal tunnel syndrome is often the result of a combination of factors that increase pressure on the median nerve and tendons in the carpal tunnel, rather than a problem with the nerve itself.

17. Most likely the disorder is due to a congenital predisposition - the carpal tunnel is simply smaller in some people than in others.

18. Other contributing factors include trauma or injury to the wrist that cause swelling, such as sprain or fracture; over activity of the pituitary gland; hypothyroidism; rheumatoid arthritis; mechanical problems in the wrist joint; work stress; repeated use of vibrating hand tools; fluid retention during pregnancy or menopause; or the development of a cyst or tumour in the canal.

19. Carpal tunnel syndrome is also associated with pregnancy and diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease, or rheumatoid arthritis. In some cases no cause can be identified.

20. There is little clinical data to prove whether repetitive and forceful movements of the hand and wrist during work or leisure activities can cause carpal tunnel syndrome.

21. Repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or other daily activities can result in repetitive motion disorders such as bursitis and tendonitis.

22. Writer's cramp - a condition in which a lack of fine motor skill coordination and ache and pressure in the fingers, wrist, or forearm is brought on by repetitive activity - is not a symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome.

23. Who is at risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome? Women are three times more likely than men to develop carpal tunnel syndrome, perhaps because the carpal tunnel itself may be smaller in women than in men.

24. The dominant hand is usually affected first and produces the most severe pain. Persons with diabetes or other metabolic disorders that directly affect the body's nerves and make them more susceptible to compression are also at high risk.

25. CTS usually occur only in adults. The risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome is not confined to people in a single industry or job, but is especially common in that performing assembly line work - manufacturing, sewing, finishing, cleaning, and meat, poultry, or fish packing.

26. In fact, carpal tunnel syndrome is three times more common among assemblers than among data-entry personnel. A 2001 study by the Mayo Clinic found heavy computer use (up to 7 hours a day) did not increase a person's risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome.

27. During 1998, an estimated three of every 10,000 workers lost time from work because of carpal tunnel syndrome. Half of these workers missed more than 10 days of work.

28. The average lifetime cost of carpal tunnel syndrome, including medical bills and lost time from work, is estimated to be about $30,000 for each injured worker.

29. How is carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed? Early diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid permanent damage to the median nerve.

30. A physical examination of the hands, arms, shoulders, and neck can help determine if the patient's complaints are related to daily activities or to an underlying disorder and can rule out other painful conditions that mimic carpal tunnel syndrome.

31. The wrist is examined for tenderness, swelling, warmth, and discoloration. Each finger should be tested for sensation, and the muscles at the base of the hand should be examined for strength and signs of atrophy.

32. Routine laboratory tests and X-rays can reveal diabetes, arthritis, and fractures. Physicians can use specific tests to try to produce the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. In the Tinsel test, the doctor taps on or presses on the median nerve in the patient's wrist.

33. The test is positive when tingling in the fingers or a resultant shock-like sensation occurs. The Phalanx, or wrist-flexion, test involves having the patient hold his or her forearms upright by pointing the fingers down and pressing the backs of the hands together.

34. The presence of carpal tunnel syndrome is suggested if one or more symptoms, such as tingling or increasing numbness, is felt in the fingers within 1 minute. Doctors may also ask patients to try to make a movement that brings on symptoms. Often it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis by use of electro diagnostic tests.

35. In a nerve conduction study, electrodes are placed on the hand and wrist. Small electric shocks are applied and the speed with which nerves transmit impulses is measured.

36. In electromyography, a fine needle is inserted into a muscle; electrical activity viewed on a screen can determine the severity of damage to the median nerve.

37. Ultrasound imaging can show impaired movement of the median nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the anatomy of the wrist but to date has not been especially useful in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome.

38. How is carpal tunnel syndrome treated? Treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome should begin as early as possible, under a doctor's direction.

39. Underlying causes such as diabetes or arthritis should be treated first. Initial treatment generally involves resting the affected hand and wrist for at least 2 weeks, avoiding activities that may worsen symptoms, and immobilizing the wrist in a splint to avoid further damage from twisting or bending.

40. If there is inflammation, applying cool packs can help reduce swelling. Non-surgical treatments Drugs - In special circumstances, various drugs can ease the pain and swelling associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

41. No steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-prescription pain relievers, may ease symptoms that have been present for a short time or have been caused by strenuous activity.

42. Orally administered diuretics ("water pills") can decrease swelling.

43. Corticosteroids (such as prednisone) or the drug lidocaine can be injected directly into the wrist or taken by mouth (in the case of prednisone) to relieve pressure on the median nerve and provide immediate, temporary relief to persons with mild or intermittent symptoms. (Caution: persons with diabetes and those who may be predisposed to diabetes should note that prolonged use of corticosteroids can make it difficult to regulate insulin levels.

44. Corticosteroids should not be taken without a doctor's prescription.) Additionally, some studies show that vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplements may ease the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

45. Exercise - Stretching and strengthening exercises can be helpful in people whose symptoms have abated.

46. These exercises may be supervised by a physical therapist, which is trained to use exercises to treat physical impairments, or an occupational therapist, which is trained in evaluating people with physical impairments and helping them build skills to improve their health and well-being.

47. Alternative therapies - Acupuncture and chiropractic care have benefited some patients but their effectiveness remains unproved.

48. An exception is yoga, which has been shown to reduce pain and improve grip strength among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

49. Surgery Carpal tunnel release is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States.

50. Generally recommended if symptoms last for 6 months, surgery involves severing the band of tissue around the wrist to reduce pressure on the median nerve.

51. Surgery is done under local anaesthesia and does not require an overnight hospital stay.

52. Many patients require surgery on both hands. The following are types of carpal tunnel release surgery: Open release surgery, the traditional procedure used to correct carpal tunnel syndrome, consists of making an incision up to 2 inches in the wrist and then cutting the carpal ligament to enlarge the carpal tunnel.

53. The procedure is generally done under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis, unless there are unusual medical considerations.

54. Endoscopic surgery may allow faster functional recovery and less postoperative discomfort than traditional open release surgery.

55. The surgeon makes two incisions (about ½ inch each) in the wrist and palm, inserts a camera attached to a tube, observes the tissue on a screen, and cuts the carpal ligament (the tissue that holds joints together).

56. This two-portal endoscopic surgery, generally performed under local anaesthesia, is effective and minimizes scarring and scar tenderness, if any.

57. Single portal endoscopic surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome is also available and can result in less post-operative pain and a minimal scar. It generally allows individuals to resume some normal activities in a short period of time.

58. Although symptoms may be relieved immediately after surgery, full recovery from carpal tunnel surgery can take months.

59. Some patients may have infection, nerve damage, stiffness, and pain at the scar. Occasionally the wrist loses strength because the carpal ligament is cut.

60. Patients should undergo physical therapy after surgery to restore wrist strength. Some patients may need to adjust job duties or even change jobs after recovery from surgery.

61. Recurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome following treatment is rare. The majority of patients recover completely. How can carpal tunnel syndrome be prevented?

62. At the workplace, workers can do on-the-job conditioning, perform stretching exercises, take frequent rest breaks, wear splints to keep wrists straight, and use correct posture and wrist position.

63. Wearing fingerless gloves can help keep hands warm and flexible. Workstations, tools and tool handles, and tasks can be redesigned to enable the worker's wrist to maintain a natural position during work.

64. Jobs can be rotated among workers. Employers can develop programs in ergonomics, the process of adapting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of workers.

65. However, research has not conclusively shown that these workplace changes prevent the occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome.

66. What research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, is the federal government's leading supporter of biomedical research on neuropathy, including carpal tunnel syndrome.

67. Scientists are studying the chronology of events that occur with carpal tunnel syndrome in order to better understand, treat, and prevent this ailment. By determining distinct biomechanical factors related to pain, such as specific joint angles, motions, force, and progression over time, researchers are finding new ways to limit or prevent carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace and decrease other costly and disabling occupational illnesses.

68. Randomized clinical trials are being designed to evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions in reducing the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders.

69. Data to be collected from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-sponsored study of carpal tunnel syndrome among construction workers will provide a better understanding of the specific work factors associated with the disorder, furnish pilot data for planning future projects to study its natural history, and assist in developing strategies to prevent its occurrence among construction and other workers.

70. Other research will discern differences between the relatively new carpal compression test (in which the examiner applies moderate pressure with both thumbs directly on the carpal tunnel and underlying median nerve, at the transverse carpal ligament) and the pressure provocative test (in which a cuff placed at the anterior of the carpal tunnel is inflated, followed by direct pressure on the median nerve) in predicting carpal tunnel syndrome.

71. Scientists are also investigating the use of alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, to prevent and treat this disorder.

#SharedBY:MKR#