BIJAN

BIJAN
MKR with YAB Dato' Sri Najib

Tuesday, August 16, 2016

A LETTER TO MKR

Dear Brother MKR,

Winners are made, not born. Wow... so young and so successful.

Alhamdulillah. It is very comforting to learn there is an “Anak Melayu” who thrives in the corporate world.

To get where you are, I believe you have worked hard, been steadfast to your principles and have the right attitude.

Can't you see right now that my eyes are green with envy?

Great inspiration indeed.

From the start, the first time we met, I knew all along that you are my junior of many years.

But maturity is not reflected by age. At work, I am surrounded by peers whom most I address as “adik-adik”.

Nevertheless, I am overwhelmed by their maturity and dedication to their career. The team in MRSM KK epitomizes hard work and unity.

They have been my source of inspiration. I don't have to look far. Naturally, I suffer the saddest feeling leaving them behind to seek greener pasture in my new assigned as MRSM Principal at East Cost Peninsular.

There is another junior of mine who has passion in what he does.

We used to exchange economics lecture notes.

He was the President of Kelab UMNO('85-'88) at our university (Wellington Univeristy, New Zealand).

When asked what his ambition was, he said, 'Prime Minister of Malaysia'.

I did not mean to be cruel but I had to giggle.

Well, now he is the MP for “Pontian” paving his way towards his noble goal with a truly sense of patriotism deeply ingrained in him since he was a student.

I think I have found my new source of inspiration to whet my appetite for betterment in life...

This is you “Brother MKR” – very young and success!

Yours Faithfully,
MRSM PRINCIPAL.

Wednesday, August 10, 2016

SAFETY & HEALTH OFFICER (SHO) IN SCHOOL

YAB Dato' Sri Najib Tun Razak,
Malaysian Prime Minister.

Via:
YBhg Datuk Akmar Hisham Mokhles
Prime Minister Office.


RE: SAFETY & HEALTH OFFICER (SHO) IN SCHOOL


YAB Dato' Sri,


With reference to the above, we humbly suggest that the Malaysian Government, particularly the Ministry of Education to take seriously the cases of accidents resulting in death at school.


Crooning like the rhythm of old newspapers, when the fatal accidents happened in the school, then all the relevant authorities wants to set up an accident investigation committees.


But as usual, after 2-3 months; this committee's name has disappeared from public attention.



So we will "WAIT" another accident at other school, then the name of the Committee of Inquiry resurfaced.



We propose that the " Safety & Health " as one of the new subjects in schools . In fact , the Ministry of Higher Education should urge our local Universities encourage the Government to open new courses at their campus as construction and manufacturing industries are the lack of specialists in this field


The SHO was also appointed from among teachers who have been trained in the NIOSH (National Institute of Safety & Health) to obtain a professional and well-established practice at the expiration of the Professional Certificate.


Imagine if we let how many more students and teachers themselves vulnerable to accidents in the school environment.


As a Government which always precedes the People; we believe this will soon be realized by our beloved Prime Minister


Therefore, the appointment of SHO in each school is highly needed. Besides teaching regular subjects, SHO Teachers will be supervising and monitoring the security system in the school environment.


MKR

Thursday, July 28, 2016

WHAT IS TOTAL QUALITY MANAGEMENT (TQM)

a. A core definition of total quality management (TQM) describes a management approach to long–term success through customer satisfaction.

b. In a TQM effort, all members of an organisation participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.

c. Total Quality Management TQM, also known as total productive maintenance, describes a management approach to long-term success through customer satisfaction.

d. In a TQM effort, all members of an organisation participate in improving processes, products, services, and the culture in which they work.

e. The 8 Primary Elements of TQM: Total quality management can be summarised as a management system for a customer-focused organisation that involves all employees in continual improvement. It uses strategy, data, and effective communications to integrate the quality discipline into the culture and activities of the organisation. Many of these concepts are present in modern Quality Management Systems, the successor to TQM. Here are the 8 principles of total quality management:

1. Customer-focused
The customer ultimately determines the level of quality. No matter what an organisation does to foster quality improvement—training employees, integrating quality into the design process, upgrading computers or software, or buying new measuring tools—the customer determines whether the efforts were worthwhile.

2. Total employee involvement
All employees participate in working toward common goals. Total employee commitment can only be obtained after fear has been driven from the workplace, when empowerment has occurred, and management has provided the proper environment. High-performance work systems integrate continuous improvement efforts with normal business operations. Self-managed work teams are one form of empowerment.

3. Process-cantered
A fundamental part of TQM is a focus on process thinking. A process is a series of steps that take inputs from suppliers (internal or external) and transforms them into outputs that are delivered to customers (again, either internal or external). The steps required to carry out the process are defined, and performance measures are continuously monitored in order to detect unexpected variation.

4. Integrated system
Although an organisation may consist of many different functional specialities often organised into vertically structured departments, it is the horizontal processes interconnecting these functions that are the focus of TQM.
Micro-processes add up to larger processes, and all processes aggregate into the business processes required for defining and implementing strategy. Everyone must understand the vision, mission, and guiding principles as well as the quality policies, objectives, and critical processes of the organisation. Business performance must be monitored and communicated continuously.
An integrated business system may be modelled after the Baldrige National Quality Program criteria and/or incorporate the ISO 9000 standards. Every organisation has a unique work culture, and it is virtually impossible to achieve excellence in its products and services unless a good quality culture has been fostered. Thus, an integrated system connects business improvement elements in an attempt to continually improve and exceed the expectations of customers, employees, and other stakeholders.
5. Strategic and systematic approach
A critical part of the management of quality is the strategic and systematic approach to achieving an organisation's vision, mission, and goals. This process, called strategic planning or strategic management, includes the formulation of a strategic plan that integrates quality as a core component.

6. Continual improvement
A major thrust of TQM is continual process improvement. Continual improvement drives an organisation to be both analytical and creative in finding ways to become more competitive and more effective at meeting stakeholder expectations.

7. Fact-based decision making
In order to know how well an organisation is performing, data on performance measures are necessary. TQM requires that an organisation continually collect and analyse data in order to improve decision making accuracy, achieve consensus, and allow prediction based on past history.

8. Communications
During times of organisational change, as well as part of day-to-day operation, effective communications plays a large part in maintaining morale and in motivating employees at all levels. Communications involve strategies, method, and timeliness.

Shared by: MKR

Thursday, July 21, 2016

SEVEN (7) OFFICE MANAGEMENT SKILLS BY MKR

1. Start your day with “SUPER 5S” activity – do it by yourself:
a) Spend 10-20 minutes to do Cleaning & Arrangement at your work station, files, papers, etc.
b) Take out and scrap all unnecessary items and keep safe all important documents.
c) Upgrade your File Master List, File Detail List, Cabinet Master List, etc.
d) Soft Copy File: Scan all relevant documents, letters, memos, reports, etc. Keep in PC Folder. (Copy to CD).

2. Talk to your staff – in better working environment all staff sit together in relax mode and share about daily task and follow up. All staff acknowledges everybody schedule and easy to get help each other as ONE TEAM spirit. In other terms this system is called “STAFF WORK STATION MEETING” (Spend about 10-20 minutes).

3. Motivation to Staff – Call your staff to your office and spend 10-20 minutes to listen their ideas and problem. Otherwise you can go to your staff work station and start to communicate in a highly positive motivational and professional manner.

4. Develop your Staff Skill & Knowledge – Always sharing what you have done and try to share with your staff. Next process, let your staff do it and both of you share it together to do it. Dare to Dream. Dare to fail. Dare to learn from mistakes. Mistakes are a process to develop our skills.

5. Team Work Spirit - Always sharing with your relevant staff on what are you doing and follow up. Always give your positive remarks on your staff good efforts and positive attitudes.

6. Support and Promote your staff – Always support our staff by giving them more new tasks and job scope to promote their skills and knowledge. Give them a positive motivation such as they are future company Management Team.


7. Discipline without punishment – Management by example, management by mutual respect and understanding. Management by self-discipline. Rewards system for good and excellent discipline staff.



MKR

LEADERSHIP

LEADERSHIP & INTER PERSONAL SKILLS

Leadership can encompass every other positive characteristics of the human individual. However, a lot of people do not realize this fact. People attend to their needs and constantly battle with the struggles they face in life, but rarely do they notice that the solutions they need are just a stone throw away if they could just have time to cultivate some of the leadership traits listed below.

Why is it important to have these skills?

Acquiring leadership skills is necessary for you sustain a good relationship with people in your society. Other than that, it allows you to develop your self-esteem. A lot of people need someone to look up to and establishing these traits within your own character, you boost your interpersonal capabilities allowing you to make more significant connections with other people.

1. Association, Partnership - Two heads are better than one. If you learn how to associate with other people and build partnerships everywhere you go, you increase the chances of multiplying your resources and extending your reach. Associating with other like-minded individuals and creating partnerships will also allow you to gather more ideas to reach your goals.

2. Affirmation, Praise - People who work for you or under you also expect to be appreciated for their efforts. It gives them assurance that you value their work and gives more room for creativity and improvement to grow. A pat on the back, a congratulatory remark, or even a handshake is enough for somebody to feel appreciated and valued.

3. Incentive, Motivation, Encouragement - Every once in a while, the people you lead may need a little push to be able to continue performing at their best. Every leader knows that his people need to be motivated and encouraged from time to time. Conformity and monotony are the enemies of growth.

4. Mentoring, Support, Enabling, and Advice - Encourage your people to become better performers and you will have an army of reliable soldiers. A good leader understands that sharing his wisdom to his followers is one of the key principles responsible for his success. Leadership is not only about personal growth. It’s also about helping other people grow to their fullest potential.

5. Caring - A good leader must learn how sincerely care for his for his followers and other people around him. A person who shows empathy and sincerity understands that life is something to be valued. Every life on earth is precious.

6. Mutuality, Compatibility, and Chemistry - Good leaders can create instant rapport with anybody. They instantly know how to get in step with people from every facet of the society. Understand that by helping other people, you contribute to your own success.

7. Empowerment - Leadership is not about slavery. It is about liberating other people from it. A good leader realizes that replicating himself by empowering other people enables him to accomplish a lot more and generally contribute to the growth of his community.



MKR

Wednesday, July 13, 2016

MKR

DEVELOPING "SMART' GOALS



What is “SMART”?

S: Specific
M: Measurable
A: Achievable
R: Realistic
T: Timeliness

1. Specific:

a. The criterion stresses the need for a specific goal rather than a more general one.

b. This means the goal is clear and unambiguous; without vagaries and platitudes.

c. To make goals specific, they must tell a team exactly what's expected why it's important, who’s involved, where it's going to happen and which attributes are important.

d. A specific goal will usually answer the five 'W' questions:

i) What: What do I want to accomplish?
ii) Why: Specific reasons, purpose or benefits of accomplishing the goal.
iii) Who: Who is involved?
iv) Where: Identify a location.
v) Which: Identify requirements and constraints.

2. Measurable:

a. The second criterion stresses the need for concrete criteria for measuring progress toward the attainment of the goal.

b. The thought behind this is that if a goal is not measurable it is not possible to know whether a team is making progress toward successful completion.

c. Measuring progress is supposed to help a team stay on track, reach its target dates and experience the exhilaration of achievement that spurs it on to continued effort required to reach the ultimate goal.

d. Indicators should be quantifiable. A measurable goal will usually answer questions such as:

i) How much?
ii) How many?
iii) How will I know when it is accomplished?

3. Achievable:

a. The third criterion stresses the importance of goals that are realistic and also attainable.

b. Whilst an attainable goal may stretch a team in order to achieve it, the goal is not extreme.

c. That is, the goals are neither out of reach nor below standard performance, since these may be considered meaningless.

d. When you identify goals that are most important to you, you begin to figure out ways you can make them come true.

e. You develop the attitudes, abilities, skills and financial capacity to reach them.

f. The theory states that an attainable goal may cause goal-setters to identify previously overlooked opportunities to bring themselves closer to the achievement of their goals.

g. An achievable goal will usually answer the question How?

i. How can the goal be accomplished?
ii. How realistic is the goal based on other constraints?

4. Realistic:

a. The fourth criterion stresses the importance of choosing goals that matter.
b. Many times you will need support to accomplish a goal: resources, a champion voice, someone to knock down obstacles.

c. Goals that are realistic to your boss, your team, your organization will receive that needed support.

d. Realistic goals (when met) drive the team, department and organization forward.

e. A goal that supports or is in alignment with other goals would be considered a relevant goal.

f. A realistic goal can answer yes to these questions:

i. Does this seem worthwhile?
ii. Is this the right time?
iii. Does this match our other efforts/needs?
iv. Are you the right person?
v. Is it applicable in the current socio-economic environment?

5. Timeliness:

a. The fifth criterion stresses the importance of grounding goals within a time-frame, giving them a target date.

b. A commitment to a deadline helps a team focus their efforts on completion of the goal on or before the due date.

c. This part of the SMART goal criteria is intended to prevent goals from being overtaken by the day-to-day crises that invariably arise in an organization.

d. A timeliness goal is intended to establish a sense of urgency.

e. A timeliness goal will usually answer the questions:

i. When?
ii. What can I do six months from now?
iii. What can I do six weeks from now?
iv. What can I do today?

#Shared By: MKR#

THE IMPORTANT OF WASTE WATER MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

1. Waste water management plants are certainly very much necessary to dirt free the water through all the waste as well as harmful microorganisms.

2. However, apart from that people on their part must also put efforts to avoid putting any type of waste fabric into dampen sources.

3. Various urban areas have found a water reusing expert plan to verify the decently composed utilisation of important water assets.

4. Under such an arrangement, water-related measures are inspected from the perspective of water reusing and all exercises inside the city are completed in a manner solid with the expert arrangement.

5. Water Treatment Plants do what they say. They treat the dilute that goes our channels before discharging it go into nature's domain.

6. Wastewater management plants have developed significantly in relation to whether.

7. Their first and most imperative reason for existing is to clear the water we use in our homes of strong materials.

8. This methodology of screening and settlement is known as essential treatment.

9. In spite of the fact that this evacuates the biggest garbage things, the wastewater is still overflowing with natural material, which does not smell incredible and, if dumped specifically into our water bodies, can contaminate them and expend accessible oxygen as it breaks down.

10. This is the reason practically all treatment plants in utilise a methodology of air circulation to energise the development of helpful microorganism, which break down the natural material in the waste, in a procedure, called auxiliary treatment.

11. As a rule, the water is then released, frequently after disinfection with Ultra Violet light, which slaughters possibly infection bringing on microscopic organisms and infections.

12. However as city populaces develop, more supplements are going into the wastewater treatment offices and being released into our conduits.

13. These overabundance supplements act like manure to the plants and green growth living in the water.

14. Phytoplankton (small infinitesimal plants) starts to sprout wildly, shutting out daylight required by different plants lower in the water segment.

15. Once the green growth achieves greatest limit it starts to vanish in mass numbers.

16. The dead cells sink to the lowest part where microorganisms disintegrate the cells, utilising up oxygen within the procedure.

17. As the microbes, haul oxygen out of the water, the fish, shellfish and other organic entity in the territory start to suffocate.

18. Those that cannot swim away in the end kick the bucket, giving more nourishment to the oxygen-expending microbes.

19. Then again, late headway's in innovation and mindfulness have achieved new advances which can treat wastewater to uproot these supplements is carried out in the third stage, known as tertiary treatment.

20. A few urban areas have secured a Water Treatment Plants to guarantee the productive utilisation of valuable water assets.

21. Under such an arrangement, water-related measures are analysed from the perspective of water reusing and all exercises inside the city are done in a way reliable with the expert arrangement.

Shared By: MKR

Tuesday, June 14, 2016

BUSINESS ANALYSIS: SICHUAN PROVINCE, PEOPLE REPUBLIC OF CHINA

1. Sichuan is a province in Western Region with its capital in Chengdu.

2. It is bordered by Qinghai, Gansu, Shaanxi, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces, Chongqing Municipality, and the Tibet Autonomous Region. It has an area of 487,000 km2.

3. Sichuan Province is a traditionally agricultural region in the southwest of China, home to more than 82.42 million people.

4. The central government’s policy in the 1980s and 90s by providing incentives for growth in coastal areas, has lagged behind inland provinces including Sichuan.

5. However, recent attention due to regional income disparities has prompted the government to promote economic incentives and infrastructure investments in the inland areas.

6. Sichuan’s economy responded quickly, growing by 15.1 per cent in 2010 to top RMB 1.6 trillion (compared to a national average of 10.3 per cent), with growth led by town and village enterprises (TVEs) and the private sector.

7. More recent studies show continued strong growth. Sichuan’s capital, Chengdu City, forms part of an emerging urban industrial corridor which stretches southeast through to the newly-designated municipality of Chongqing, now the world’s largest single metropolitan area in terms of the population.

8. The area lies in the Sichuan basin and is surrounded by the Himalaya to the West, Qinling range to the North, and mountainous areas of Yunnan to the South.

9. The Yangtze River flows through the basin and thus is upstream to areas of Eastern Region.

10. The Minjiang River, in central Sichuan is a tributary of the upper Yangtze River, which it joins at Yibin.

11. The climate is often heavily foggy. Several cities are quite polluted and seldom get sunny days.

12. Administrative Subdivisions The current immediate administrative divisions of Sichuan consist of eighteen prefecture-level cities and three autonomous prefectures.

13. Major cities are Chengdu, Mianyang, Deyang, Yibin, Luzhou, Zigong and Panzhihua.

14. In 2010, Chengdu’s population topped 14 million. Economy Sichuan has been historically known as the "Kingdom of Abundance".

15. It is one of the major agricultural production bases of China. Grain, including rice and wheat, is the major product from the province.

16. Commercial crops include citrus fruits, sugar canes, sweet potatoes, peaches and rapeseeds. Sichuan is rich in mineral resources.

17. It has more than 132 different kind of proven underground mineral resources of which the reserves of 11 minerals (including vanadium, titanium, and lithium) are the largest in China.

18. The Panxi region alone possesses 13.3% of the reserves of iron, 93% of titanium, 69% of vanadium, and 83% of cobalt of the whole country.

19. Sichuan is also one of the major industrial bases of China. In addition to heavy industries such as coal, energy, iron and steel industries, the province has established a light - manufacturing sector comprising of building materials, wood processing, food and silk processing.

20. Chengdu and Mianyang are the production bases for textiles and electronics products. Deyang, Panzhihua, and Yibin are the production bases for machinery, metallurgy industries, and wine respectively.

21. Great strides have been achieved in accelerating the development of Sichuan into a modern hi-tech industrial base by encouraging both domestic and foreign investments in electronics and information technology (such as software), machinery and metallurgy (including automobiles), hydropower, pharmaceutical, food and beverage industries.

22. The auto industry is a key sector of the machinery industry in Sichuan. Most of the auto manufacturing companies are located in Chengdu, Mianyang, Nanchong, and Luzhou.

23. Other important industries in Sichuan include aerospace and defence (military) industries.

24. A number of China’s rockets (Long March rockets) and satellites have been launched from the Xichang Satellite Launch Center.

25. Sichuan’s beautiful landscapes and rich historical relics have also made the province into a major center for tourism.

26. The Three Gorges Dam, the largest dam ever constructed lies on the Yangtze River in nearby Hubei province for - among others - the purpose of controlling flooding in the Sichuan Basin, neighbouring Yunnan province, and downstream.

27. The dam is hailed by some as a Chinese effort to shift towards alternative energy sources and to further develop its industrial and commercial bases but others have criticized it for its potential harmful effects, such as massive resettlement of refugees, loss of archaeological sites, and ecological damage.

28. Local Regulation Sichuan authority formulated ― Sichuan Provincial Monitoring Management of Industrial Pollution Source in 1992, thus Sichuan has a local system of measures in place for industrial pollution management.

29. To ensure the drinking water security and water resources, the Sichuan Provincial People’s Congress approved ―Sichuan Management Regulations of Drinking Water Source Protection in 1997.

30. To enhance the hazardous solid waste management and alleviate the pollution caused by solid waste, Sichuan authority formulated ― Prevention Method of Hazardous Solid Waste Pollution in Sichuan in 2003.

31. To improve the environmental protection processes, Sichuan formulated ― Level Certification Management Method of Environmental Protection Process Design in 2006. Based on ― Environmental Protection Law of China, this regulation provides the executable measures for the local environmental protection work.

#Shared BY: MKR#

Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS)

1. You're working at your desk, trying to ignore the tingling or numbness you've had for months in your hand and wrist. Suddenly, a sharp, piercing pain shoots through the wrist and up your arm. Just a passing cramp?

2. More likely you have carpal tunnel syndrome, a painful progressive condition caused by compression of a key nerve in the wrist. What is carpal tunnel syndrome?

3. Carpal Tunnel Syndrome (CTS) occurs when the median nerve, which runs from the forearm into the palm of the hand, becomes pressed or squeezed at the wrist.

4. The median nerve controls sensations to the palm side of the thumb and fingers (although not the little finger), as well as impulses to some small muscles in the hand that allow the fingers and thumb to move.

5. The carpal tunnel - a narrow, rigid passageway of ligament and bones at the base of the hand - houses the median nerve and tendons.

6. Sometimes, thickening from irritated tendons or other swelling narrows the tunnel and causes the median nerve to be compressed.

7. The result may be pain, weakness, or numbness in the hand and wrist, radiating up the arm.

8. Although painful sensations may indicate other conditions, carpal tunnel syndrome is the most common and widely known of the entrapment neuropathies in which the body's peripheral nerves are compressed or traumatized.

9. What are the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome? Symptoms usually start gradually, with frequent burning, tingling, or itching numbness in the palm of the hand and the fingers, especially the thumb and the index and middle fingers.

10. Some carpal tunnel sufferers say their fingers feel useless and swollen, even though little or no swelling is apparent.

11. The symptoms often first appear in one or both hands during the night, since many people sleep with flexed wrists.

12. A person with carpal tunnel syndrome may wake up feeling the need to "shake out" the hand or wrist.

13. As symptoms worsen, people might feel tingling during the day.

14. Decreased grip strength may make it difficult to form a fist, grasp small objects, or perform other manual tasks.

15. In chronic and/or untreated cases, the muscles at the base of the thumb may waste away. Some people are unable to tell between hot and cold by touch.

16. What are the causes of carpal tunnel syndrome? Carpal tunnel syndrome is often the result of a combination of factors that increase pressure on the median nerve and tendons in the carpal tunnel, rather than a problem with the nerve itself.

17. Most likely the disorder is due to a congenital predisposition - the carpal tunnel is simply smaller in some people than in others.

18. Other contributing factors include trauma or injury to the wrist that cause swelling, such as sprain or fracture; over activity of the pituitary gland; hypothyroidism; rheumatoid arthritis; mechanical problems in the wrist joint; work stress; repeated use of vibrating hand tools; fluid retention during pregnancy or menopause; or the development of a cyst or tumour in the canal.

19. Carpal tunnel syndrome is also associated with pregnancy and diseases such as diabetes, thyroid disease, or rheumatoid arthritis. In some cases no cause can be identified.

20. There is little clinical data to prove whether repetitive and forceful movements of the hand and wrist during work or leisure activities can cause carpal tunnel syndrome.

21. Repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or other daily activities can result in repetitive motion disorders such as bursitis and tendonitis.

22. Writer's cramp - a condition in which a lack of fine motor skill coordination and ache and pressure in the fingers, wrist, or forearm is brought on by repetitive activity - is not a symptom of carpal tunnel syndrome.

23. Who is at risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome? Women are three times more likely than men to develop carpal tunnel syndrome, perhaps because the carpal tunnel itself may be smaller in women than in men.

24. The dominant hand is usually affected first and produces the most severe pain. Persons with diabetes or other metabolic disorders that directly affect the body's nerves and make them more susceptible to compression are also at high risk.

25. CTS usually occur only in adults. The risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome is not confined to people in a single industry or job, but is especially common in that performing assembly line work - manufacturing, sewing, finishing, cleaning, and meat, poultry, or fish packing.

26. In fact, carpal tunnel syndrome is three times more common among assemblers than among data-entry personnel. A 2001 study by the Mayo Clinic found heavy computer use (up to 7 hours a day) did not increase a person's risk of developing carpal tunnel syndrome.

27. During 1998, an estimated three of every 10,000 workers lost time from work because of carpal tunnel syndrome. Half of these workers missed more than 10 days of work.

28. The average lifetime cost of carpal tunnel syndrome, including medical bills and lost time from work, is estimated to be about $30,000 for each injured worker.

29. How is carpal tunnel syndrome diagnosed? Early diagnosis and treatment are important to avoid permanent damage to the median nerve.

30. A physical examination of the hands, arms, shoulders, and neck can help determine if the patient's complaints are related to daily activities or to an underlying disorder and can rule out other painful conditions that mimic carpal tunnel syndrome.

31. The wrist is examined for tenderness, swelling, warmth, and discoloration. Each finger should be tested for sensation, and the muscles at the base of the hand should be examined for strength and signs of atrophy.

32. Routine laboratory tests and X-rays can reveal diabetes, arthritis, and fractures. Physicians can use specific tests to try to produce the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome. In the Tinsel test, the doctor taps on or presses on the median nerve in the patient's wrist.

33. The test is positive when tingling in the fingers or a resultant shock-like sensation occurs. The Phalanx, or wrist-flexion, test involves having the patient hold his or her forearms upright by pointing the fingers down and pressing the backs of the hands together.

34. The presence of carpal tunnel syndrome is suggested if one or more symptoms, such as tingling or increasing numbness, is felt in the fingers within 1 minute. Doctors may also ask patients to try to make a movement that brings on symptoms. Often it is necessary to confirm the diagnosis by use of electro diagnostic tests.

35. In a nerve conduction study, electrodes are placed on the hand and wrist. Small electric shocks are applied and the speed with which nerves transmit impulses is measured.

36. In electromyography, a fine needle is inserted into a muscle; electrical activity viewed on a screen can determine the severity of damage to the median nerve.

37. Ultrasound imaging can show impaired movement of the median nerve. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) can show the anatomy of the wrist but to date has not been especially useful in diagnosing carpal tunnel syndrome.

38. How is carpal tunnel syndrome treated? Treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome should begin as early as possible, under a doctor's direction.

39. Underlying causes such as diabetes or arthritis should be treated first. Initial treatment generally involves resting the affected hand and wrist for at least 2 weeks, avoiding activities that may worsen symptoms, and immobilizing the wrist in a splint to avoid further damage from twisting or bending.

40. If there is inflammation, applying cool packs can help reduce swelling. Non-surgical treatments Drugs - In special circumstances, various drugs can ease the pain and swelling associated with carpal tunnel syndrome.

41. No steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and other non-prescription pain relievers, may ease symptoms that have been present for a short time or have been caused by strenuous activity.

42. Orally administered diuretics ("water pills") can decrease swelling.

43. Corticosteroids (such as prednisone) or the drug lidocaine can be injected directly into the wrist or taken by mouth (in the case of prednisone) to relieve pressure on the median nerve and provide immediate, temporary relief to persons with mild or intermittent symptoms. (Caution: persons with diabetes and those who may be predisposed to diabetes should note that prolonged use of corticosteroids can make it difficult to regulate insulin levels.

44. Corticosteroids should not be taken without a doctor's prescription.) Additionally, some studies show that vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) supplements may ease the symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome.

45. Exercise - Stretching and strengthening exercises can be helpful in people whose symptoms have abated.

46. These exercises may be supervised by a physical therapist, which is trained to use exercises to treat physical impairments, or an occupational therapist, which is trained in evaluating people with physical impairments and helping them build skills to improve their health and well-being.

47. Alternative therapies - Acupuncture and chiropractic care have benefited some patients but their effectiveness remains unproved.

48. An exception is yoga, which has been shown to reduce pain and improve grip strength among patients with carpal tunnel syndrome.

49. Surgery Carpal tunnel release is one of the most common surgical procedures in the United States.

50. Generally recommended if symptoms last for 6 months, surgery involves severing the band of tissue around the wrist to reduce pressure on the median nerve.

51. Surgery is done under local anaesthesia and does not require an overnight hospital stay.

52. Many patients require surgery on both hands. The following are types of carpal tunnel release surgery: Open release surgery, the traditional procedure used to correct carpal tunnel syndrome, consists of making an incision up to 2 inches in the wrist and then cutting the carpal ligament to enlarge the carpal tunnel.

53. The procedure is generally done under local anaesthesia on an outpatient basis, unless there are unusual medical considerations.

54. Endoscopic surgery may allow faster functional recovery and less postoperative discomfort than traditional open release surgery.

55. The surgeon makes two incisions (about ½ inch each) in the wrist and palm, inserts a camera attached to a tube, observes the tissue on a screen, and cuts the carpal ligament (the tissue that holds joints together).

56. This two-portal endoscopic surgery, generally performed under local anaesthesia, is effective and minimizes scarring and scar tenderness, if any.

57. Single portal endoscopic surgery for carpal tunnel syndrome is also available and can result in less post-operative pain and a minimal scar. It generally allows individuals to resume some normal activities in a short period of time.

58. Although symptoms may be relieved immediately after surgery, full recovery from carpal tunnel surgery can take months.

59. Some patients may have infection, nerve damage, stiffness, and pain at the scar. Occasionally the wrist loses strength because the carpal ligament is cut.

60. Patients should undergo physical therapy after surgery to restore wrist strength. Some patients may need to adjust job duties or even change jobs after recovery from surgery.

61. Recurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome following treatment is rare. The majority of patients recover completely. How can carpal tunnel syndrome be prevented?

62. At the workplace, workers can do on-the-job conditioning, perform stretching exercises, take frequent rest breaks, wear splints to keep wrists straight, and use correct posture and wrist position.

63. Wearing fingerless gloves can help keep hands warm and flexible. Workstations, tools and tool handles, and tasks can be redesigned to enable the worker's wrist to maintain a natural position during work.

64. Jobs can be rotated among workers. Employers can develop programs in ergonomics, the process of adapting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of workers.

65. However, research has not conclusively shown that these workplace changes prevent the occurrence of carpal tunnel syndrome.

66. What research is being done? The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS), a part of the National Institutes of Health, is the federal government's leading supporter of biomedical research on neuropathy, including carpal tunnel syndrome.

67. Scientists are studying the chronology of events that occur with carpal tunnel syndrome in order to better understand, treat, and prevent this ailment. By determining distinct biomechanical factors related to pain, such as specific joint angles, motions, force, and progression over time, researchers are finding new ways to limit or prevent carpal tunnel syndrome in the workplace and decrease other costly and disabling occupational illnesses.

68. Randomized clinical trials are being designed to evaluate the effectiveness of educational interventions in reducing the incidence of carpal tunnel syndrome and upper extremity cumulative trauma disorders.

69. Data to be collected from a National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health-sponsored study of carpal tunnel syndrome among construction workers will provide a better understanding of the specific work factors associated with the disorder, furnish pilot data for planning future projects to study its natural history, and assist in developing strategies to prevent its occurrence among construction and other workers.

70. Other research will discern differences between the relatively new carpal compression test (in which the examiner applies moderate pressure with both thumbs directly on the carpal tunnel and underlying median nerve, at the transverse carpal ligament) and the pressure provocative test (in which a cuff placed at the anterior of the carpal tunnel is inflated, followed by direct pressure on the median nerve) in predicting carpal tunnel syndrome.

71. Scientists are also investigating the use of alternative therapies, such as acupuncture, to prevent and treat this disorder.

#SharedBY:MKR#

WHEN GOVERNMENT REFORM

1. When governments reform, they have four things foremost in mind. They want to provide better quality services at lesser cost to them and at affordable prices to citizens. They want to create an environment that is business-friendly.

2. Governments also want their bureaucrats to be customer-centric rather than self-serving “little napoleons”. And, in their reform agenda, governments aim to improve the structures, systems and processes so that government is nimble enough to be responsive to societal needs.

3. These intentions are noble and pertinent. They are also important as their realisation will ensure citizens’ well-being, global competitiveness and, consequently, national prosperity.

4. Bureaucratic bashing and public dissatisfaction over public services, including the litany of financial mismanagement of government departments, seem to suggest that all is not well on the reforming front.

5. True, to paraphrase Robert Frost’s poem Stopping by Woods on a Snowy Evening, the public service has promises to keep and miles to go before it can sleep.

6. Notwithstanding, one must agree, however grudgingly, that our public service has come a long way in improving its performance since the start of its reforms in the 1960s.

7. Catapulting to the coveted position of 12th in the 2012 World Bank ranking (from 23rd position last year) as the most competitive nation for doing business is partial testimony of the enormous strides the public service has taken to improve its services.

8. Innovative methods to simplify work processes, update regulations and eliminate red tape have resulted in one-day approvals to start a business, register a company, property title or land transfer, one-hour issuance of passports and quicker processing time for many other applications for public service are a further testimony to an invigorated public service.

9. The public service has not shied from embracing technology either. It renders a third (2,200 of over 7,000) of its services online.

10. Indeed, reform of government has been the clarion call and bulwark of all governments against increasing, and often vocal, consumerism within their societies. Accordingly, governments the world over have taken a two-tack approach to reform.

11. One is the across-the-board reform based on international practices. Developing countries, especially, have embarked upon reform after reform by riding on the wave of reform that ripples across public services across the world.

12. They have felt compelled to benchmark against international practices to redeem the trust of an increasingly sceptical society that seems resigned to mediocre public services. Best practices have the advantage of having proven their merit.

13. If they had worked before or elsewhere, they should do so again. As such, they serve to legitimise a public reform initiative, especially where they have been adapted to fit into the culture, circumstance and pressures of a particular public service environment.

14. Best practices of role-model First World countries have informed the nature and content of our government reforms. Privatisation and corporatisation initiatives have been informed by best practices in Britain.

15. Britain, the United States, Australia and New Zealand practices have inspired government performance management reform. We owe Japan for our quality control circles, quality management, productivity improvement and performance-related salary.

16. To Korea, we owe a debt for our land administration reforms. While the first approach to reform is to attack inefficiency government-wide through the adaptation of international best practices, the second tack to government reform is to focus resources to tackle particular problems of service delivery.

17. This problem-solving approach acknowledges that service-wide reforms have their strengths in bringing about overall improvements in services.

18. However, rather than spreading resources thinly across the service to pursue service-wide reform, quicker results could be obtained by focusing on improving areas of service delivery that have become pain points for the public.

19. Action plans are drawn and resources are allocated to achieve the desired outcomes.

20. Implementation plans with KPIs and specific performance targets enable effective evaluation and feedback and further improvements to the reform effort.

21. The Performance Management and Delivery Unit of the British public service and a similar unit (Pemandu) established by Prime Minister YAB Dato' Sri Najib Tun Razak to pursue the government and economic transformation programmes are instances of reforms with specific problems to address.

22. So too are the efforts of Pemudah (Business Facilitation Committee) that seeks to eliminate red tape in government.

23. In addressing the specific concerns of the public, these problem-solving reforms have specifically courted greater citizen and business participation in the reform agenda.

24. Problem-solving laboratories of the government transformation programme have roped in relevant departments to the reform effort.

25. Regardless of its approach, there are four lessons to be learnt from the Malaysian experience in government reform. First, government reform is not an option.

26. In this world of increasing consumerism, reform is a necessity to ensure citizen happiness by meeting their needs adequately. And in meeting the needs of business, the Government can ensure global competitiveness and national prosperity.

27. Second, the pressure for reform must be constant and unrelenting. Buffeting the public service with one reform after another in a peristaltic fashion, past reforms have kept the reform agenda alive.

28. That impact must be attributed not only to the scale of the reform but also to the amount of resources put into it. The impact of the reforms must also be ascribed to the persistence and tenacity of the public service to stick with the reforms.

29. Third, it is crucial to pinpoint the areas of reform that will have the highest impact upon service delivery. In this exercise, the public will have to be brought on board.

30. They should have a voice in determining the problem, suggesting policy alternatives and judging reform success. Such consultation will provide context to the reform effort and fortify public trust in the Government.

31. The latter will serve as a psychological boost to further accelerate the reform agenda. Fourth, to ensure that the reform gains traction across the public service, there must be service-wide consultation on the reform effort.

32. That will ensure that the reform is rowed along its course by the combined strength of all parties concerned.

#SharedBy:MKR#

Friday, June 3, 2016

WARKAH DARI JAKARTA

Kepada YTH Bapak MKR,

1. Terima kasih banyak-banyak Pak MKR atas kiriman email balesan bapak itu. Saya amat menghargainya.

2. Mohon maaf ya Pak karena saya lambat banget membalasnya.

3. Kebetulan sekarang sibuk banget dengan urusan kantor perusahaan konsultansi saya hinggakan hampir jam 3.00 pagi baru bisa saya ketik email buat Pak MKR.

4. Amat menarik coretan Pak MKR mengenai Pondok Tuan Guru Haji Daud Bukit Abal, memandangkan saya juga punya teman sewaktu belajar persediaan sebelum ke luar negara dulu berasal dari Bukit Abal, Pasir Puteh Kelantan.

5. Kebetulan rumah nenek teman saya itu bersebelahan dengan Pondok tersebut.

6. Berkenaan email saya yang telah Pak MKR 'forward'kan kepada YB Dato' Sri Mustapa Mohamed, saya mengucapkan berbanyak-banyak terima kasih, karena nggak pernah terlintas di pikiran saya bahawa seorang Pak Menteri sebuah negara akan membaca email dari saya seorang rakyat biasa.

7. Saya telah tunjukkan kepada istri saya email Pak MKR kepada YB Menteri Perdagangan Antarabangsa dan Industri Malaysia itu yang di bawahnya email dari saya.

8. Ini benar-benar satu sejarah dalam hidup saya Pak.

9. Betapa bangganya istri saya apabila melihat alamat email YB Dato' Sri Mustapa adalah alamat email rasmi Kementeriannya.

10. Terima kasih Pak MKR karena menjadikan suara seorang rakyat kecil seperti saya didengar oleh seorang Pak Menteri Malaysia yang "Super Hebat" ini.

11. Kalau di Indonesia, sebut sahaja nama YB Dato' Sri Mustapa Mohamed, pasti menjadi kegilaan para journalist dan economist untuk bertemu dengan beliau. Bagi kami penduduk Jakarta, YB Dato' Sri Mustapa adalah seorang pemimpin hebat dunia Islam. Sederhana tapi Super Genius. Beliau memimpin perkembangan Ekonomi Asia.

12. Mungkin bagi Pak MKR berurusan dengan Pak Menteri adalah perkara biasa-biasa saja. Tapi bagi saya dan istri ini satu keajaiban lagi hal yang besar dan bersejarah Pak.

13. Saya juga amat berterima kasih karena Pak MKR sudi memasukkan utusan email saya ini ke blog Pak MKR dengan kelulusan dan suntingan administrator Blog Pak MKR.

14. Kami juga sudah melihat foto-foto wajah Pak MKR yang ganteng (hensem) di blog Pak MKR.

15. Insya-Allah kalau mahu, kami bisa carikan gadis Muslimah Solehah yang Hafizah Al Quran dan lulusan Pondok Pesantren yang ayu wajahnya, putih kulitnya serta halus tatakarmanya sebagai 'teman hidup yang halal' kepada Pak MKR.

16. Bercanda saja ya Pak. Tapi seandainya Bapak emang mahu, itu memang bisa diuruskan dengan gampang sekali (Hehehehehe..)

17. Saya mengerti keberadaan Pak MKR yang sentiasa padat dengan tugas dan menyediakan fasilitas berilmiah untuk negara.

18. Berkenaan Pondok Pesantren di Indonesia kami mencadangkan Pusat Tahfiz Al Quran Zaid bin Tsabit yang terletak di Desa Kertarahayu di Kabupaten Bekasi, kira-kira lebih 2 jam perjalanan dari Kota Jakarta. Pengasasnya adalah Pak Ustaz Sarno lulusan di Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Islam dan Arab (LIPIA), Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

19. Jika bapak MKR ingin datang bercuti sambil belajar di Pesantren ini, kami bisa aturkan.

20. Oleh karena jam sudah melebihi 3.00 pagi, maka saya mohon diri dulu, InsyaAllah di hari lain kita komunikasi lagi Pak.

21. Trimas atas segala kebaikan-kebaikan yang Pak MKR telah berikan kepada kami.

22. Semoga Allah SWT mempermudahkan rejeki Pak MKR.

23. Wassalam.

Ikhlas:

Ir. Khairul Hassan,
Jakarta.

Monday, May 16, 2016

BASICS OF TIME MANAGEMENT


1.         TIME MANAGEMENT: When you recognize that time is a unique and precious resource that you need in order to do your work, accomplish your goals, spend time with your loved ones, and enjoy everything that life has to offer.

2.         Perhaps you have a heavy workload and want to find ways to become more effective so you can get more done in less time.

3.         Maybe you feel overwhelmed or “stressed out” and want to find ways to do less and enjoy more. Or maybe you simply want to feel more focused and in control of your time, instead of feeling like you rush madly from one activity to the next until you fall into bed exhausted every night.

4.         Benjamin Franklin said, “Do you love life? Then do not squander time, for that's the stuff that life is made of.”

5.         Whatever your reasons, you came to the right place. Here you'll find tons of resources, ideas and suggestions to help you improve your time management skills, increase your productivity and make much better use of your time.

6.         Defining Time Management: Time management is a set of principles, practices, skills, tools, and systems working together to help you get more value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life.

7.         The important point is that time management is not necessarily about getting lots of stuff done, because much more important than that is making sure that you are working on the right things, the things that truly need to be done.

8.         Smart time managers know that there is much more to do than anyone could possibly accomplish. So instead of trying to do it all, smart time managers are very picky about how they spend their time.

9.         They choose to focus and spend their time doing a few vital projects that will really make a difference, rather than spending all their time doing many trivial things that don't really matter all that much.

10.     If you become a good time manager, you’ll not only get a lot more done in less time, but you’ll feel more relaxed, focused and in control of your life.

11.     You’ll be able to use your time in a much more balanced and effective way and you’ll be able to make time for the people and activities that you love. When you get to the end of a busy day, you’ll feel a strong sense of accomplishment from everything that you actually got done.

12.     Improving your time management skills can even help you get better results by doing less work, because you're focusing on the things that really matter rather than all the low-priority busywork that just keeps you busy.

13.     If you don’t learn how to manage your time well, you’ll be far less productive than you could be and you’ll get a lot less done. You’ll also feel much more stressed and overwhelmed, and you’ll struggle to find time to spend with the people you care about and to do the things you enjoy.

14.     Learning Time Management: In the end, time management comes down to choices. Good choices lead to better results, while poor choices lead to wasted time and energy.

15.     The good news is that time management can be learned and mastered by anyone. All it takes is practice and dedication.

16.     Like any other skill, you can learn time management the easy way or you can learn it the hard way.


17.     The hard way usually involves years of trial and error and lots of false starts trying to figure out what works and what doesn't.


18.     If you'd like to save yourself some time, money and effort, I recommend you try the easy way: learn from someone who has already done it.


19.     Best Time Management Tips:


a)         Write things down:  A common time management mistake is to try to use your memory to keep track of too many details leading to information overload. Using a to-do list to write things down is a great way to take control of your projects and tasks and keep you organized.


b)         Prioritize your list: Prioritizing your to-do list helps you focus and spend more of your time on the things that really matter to you. Rate your tasks into categories using the ABCD prioritization system described in the time management course. Example: A: Top Urgent and Important. B: Not Urgent but Important. C: Top Urgent but Not Important, D: Not Urgent and Not Important.


c)         Plan your week:  Spend some time at the beginning of each week to plan your schedule. Taking the extra time to do this will help increase your productivity and balance your important long-term projects with your more urgent tasks. All you need is fifteen to thirty minutes each week for your planning session.

d)         Learn to say no: Many people become overloaded with too much work because they overcommit; they say yes when they really should be saying no. Learn to say no to low priority requests and you will free up time to spend on things that are more important.

e)        Think about what you are giving up to do your regular activities : It is a good idea to evaluate regularly how you are spending your time. In some cases, the best thing you can do is to stop doing an activity that is no longer serving you so you can spend the time doing something more valuable. Consider what you are giving up in order to maintain your current activities.

f)          Use a time management system : Using a time management system can help you keep track of everything that you need to do, organize and prioritize your work, and develop sound plans to complete it. An integrated system is like glue that holds all the best time management practices together.

g)        Beware of “filler” tasks: When you have a to-do list filled with important tasks, be careful not to get distracted by “filler” tasks. Things such as organizing your bookcase or filing papers can wait until you tackle the items that have the highest priority.

h)        Avoid “efficiency traps”: Being efficient doesn’t necessarily mean that you are being productive. Avoid taking on tasks that you can do with efficiency that don’t need to be done at all. Just because you are busy and getting things done doesn’t mean you are actually accomplishing anything significant.


#SharedBy:MKR#

Friday, May 6, 2016

THE 5W AND 1H MEETING GUIDE


1.     Senior managers spend a significant proportion of their time at work in meetings. Yet ask them how productively this time is being used and most will answer “not very!” Poorly run meetings waste hours of valuable business time and are, not surprisingly, the number one time waster identified by delegates on our time management workshop. The 5W1H approach will help to ensure anyone responsible for holding meetings makes them a productive use of every ones time.


2.     The first “W” stands for ‘Why’. It reminds us that before we schedule a face-to-face meeting we must clearly identify why it is necessary to get everyone in the same room. If you cannot clearly define why the meeting needs to be held, don’t hold it! Meetings are not always the most effective way to share information with others. Check you really do need to have people physically present before you schedule a meeting with them.

3.     The second “W” stands for ‘Who’. Having identified the why you should then only invite those people who can actually help you achieve this why to your meeting. This can be hard; as some people see attending meetings as a sign of their own importance (we call them the meeting “junkies”).

4.     The third “W” stands for ‘What’. Draft out the agenda so the “what” are clearly identified. A good agenda is keys to effective time management in meetings as people come well prepared to discuss the relevant issues. It can also be used as a road map to steer the meeting process and ensure time is used effectively.

5.     The fourth “W” stands for ‘When’. Does the meeting need to be in the morning or in the afternoon? How much time does it really need to take? It’s tempting to schedule meetings in half hour or hour slots… but if you only need 20 minutes, then just schedule 20 minutes. Short productive meetings are the name of the game.

6.     The fifth “W” stands for ‘Where’. Does the meeting need to be on-site or off-site? Make the location work for the participants, particularly if some of them have to travel to attend.

7.     Lastly there is the “H”. This stands for ‘How’. Does the meeting need to be formally chaired, with full minutes taken, or is it an informal discussion? Does special equipment need to be provided for presentations etc.? What about refreshments? Considering how the meeting will run will help to ensure time is used well.

8.     The 5W1H approach described above will help you improve your meetings. It is just one of many time management planning tools that can be used for planning other aspects of your work as well.

#Shared By: MKR#

Friday, April 15, 2016

WHAT IS "OFFLINE" TRANSACTION.


A)  WHAT IS OFFLINE TRANSACTION

1.    An offline transaction, also known as a signature debit transaction, is a payment method that uses a debit card to transfer funds from a checking account to a merchant across a digital credit card network.
 
B)   HOW IT WORKS (EXAMPLE):

 
1.    When you pay for goods or services with your debit card, you have the option to process your payment in one of two ways:

 
i)                   As an offline transaction via a credit card processing network, or

ii)                As an online transaction via an electronic funds transfer (EFT) system.

2.    Offline transactions are processed much like credit card transactions.
 
3.    They are sent over one of the major credit card networks -- Visa, MasterCard, Discover, etc -- depending on which credit card network your bank is associated with as a member bank.

4.    The cost of the transaction, called an "interchange fee," is typically 2-3% of the total purchase. The interchange fee is charged to the vendor/merchant, not the bank.

C)   WHY IT MATTERS:

 
1.     USD 20.5 billion in interchange fees were charged to merchants in 2010. 

2.    Now they are at the centre of debate among lawmakers, banks and merchant unions in the U.S. On one side of the argument are the banks, which claim the interchange fees are necessary to cover the costs of processing transactions and providing fraud protection.

3.    On the other side are the merchants and vendors, who claim the rising interchange fees are increasingly cutting into their profits, forcing them to raise the prices of their goods and services!

4.    In July 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act were passed by Congress, and included in the Act was an amendment to address interchange fee reform (the Durbin Amendment).

5.    Under this amendment the Federal Reserve is now authorized to review and reform debit card transaction fees. 

6.    One such proposal will cap interchange fees at $0.12 per transaction, a 73% reduction from the average charge of $0.44 per transaction.

7.    As a consequence, consumers can expect a loss of financial perks like free checking accounts, the end of rewards programs for debit cards and an increase in fees for ATM withdrawals from out-of-network banks.

8.    If interchange fee reform is not passed, the cost of the fees will be borne by the consumer, as merchants continue to increase the prices on their goods and services to make up for profits lost to fees.

D)  OFFLINE DEBIT

1.    Unlike online debit transactions, offline debit payments do not involve PINs.

2.    Offline debit cards (or check cards) are typically issued by credit card companies through their participating banks.

3.    The cards may be used everywhere credit cards are accepted, including over the Internet.

4.    In the physical world, customers who choose to make offline debit purchases must hand over their check cards.

5.    Merchants swipe the cards through their payment terminals and complete the debit sales the same way they process credit card transactions.

6.    The customers then sign sales drafts that authorize the merchants to charge their accounts.

7.    On the Web, customers enter check card information into browser-based forms, just as they would for credit card purchases.

8.    The data is encrypted, captured by transaction processors and sent to the credit card processing networks for authorization. Transactions normally settle in two to three business days.

9.    Because check card transactions are processed through the same networks as credit cards, they often incur the same discount rates and transaction fees.

10.   If your business is already equipped to process credit card transactions (for instance, you have a merchant account, a credit card processing service and either a terminal and printer or payment-processing software), you should also be able to process offline debit payments.

E)    DEFINITION of 'Offline Debit Card'

1.    A card that combines characteristics of both a traditional (online) debit card and a credit card, allowing the cardholder to pay for goods and services directly from his or her bank account.

2.    As with a traditional debit card, a transaction using the offline debit card creates a debit against the cardholder's bank account.

3.    But unlike with a traditional debit card, a Card PIN Number is NOT required during the transaction - all that is required is the user's signature. These cards are generally issued by credit card companies in association with the bank in which the account is held.

#Shared By MKR#